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2018年1月13日托福阅读机经小范围预测(精准版)

   2018-01-02   【

序号

题干词

正确选项词

1

associate with

connected to

2

assume

suppose

3

astonishing

surprising

4

attest to

provide evidence of

5

augment

add to

6

authority

expert

7

autonomous

independent

8

back up

support

9

baffle

puzzle

10

barrier to

impediment

11

burgeoning

increasingly

12

cease

stop

13

chaotic

disorganize

14

cluster

group

15

coalesce

joint

16

coexist

concurrent

17

coincide with

correspond to

18

collapse

fall inward

19

collate

assemble

20

compact

contract

21

comparative

considerable

22

compatible

coexisting

23

compelling

persuasive

24

modified

changed, made changes to, revised, alter, convert

25

significant

important, considerable, appreciable, notable

26

initiate

start, introduce, begin, originate, trigger

27

exploit

make use of, take advantages of, fully use, use, utilize

28

ultimately

in the end, finally, eventually, over time, in the long run, at a later time

29

inevitable

unavoidable, certain, necessary

30

hence

therefore, thus, consequently

31

subsequent, subsequently

later, following, next, ensuing, in turn

32

distinctive

characteristic, recognizable, typical, identifying

33

potential

possible, likely, promise

34

elaborate

well developed, complex, with great detail, highly developed, complicated, sophisticated, develop

35

substantial

large, significant, considerable, great

36

reinforce

strengthen, make stronger, supports

37

unfavorable

negative, disadvantageous, unpromising, hostile

38

promote

encourage

39

exclusively

solely, only

40

simultaneously

at the same time

41

sustain

continue, support

  Title:Live Performance

  Unlike video and cinema (although sometimes employing elements of both), the theater is a living, real-time event, with both performers and audience mutually interacting, each aware of the other's immediate presence. This turns out to be an extremely important distinction. Distinguished film stars, particularly those with theater backgrounds (as most have), routinely return to the live dramatic stagedespite the substantially greater financial rewards of film workand invariably prefer stage acting because of the immediate audience response theater provides, with its corresponding sensations of excitement and presence.

  The first of these is the rapport existing between actor and audience. Both are breathing the same air; both are involvedat the same time and in the same spacewith the stage life depicted by the play. Sometimes their mutual fascination is almost palpable; every actor's performance is affected by the way the audience yields or withholds its responses: its laughter, sighs, applause, gasps, silences. Live theatrical performance is always a two-way communication between stage and house.

  Second, theater creates a relationship among the audience members. Having arrived at the theaters as individuals or in groups of two or three, the audience members quickly find themselves fused into a common experience with total strangers: laughing at the same jokes, empathizing with the same characters, experiencing the same revelations. This broad communal response is never developed by television drama, which is played chiefly to solitary or clustered viewers who (because of frequent commercial advertisements) are only intermittently engaged, nor is it likely to happen in movie houses, where audience members essentially assume a one-on-one relationship with the screen and rarely (except in private or group screenings) break out in a powerful collective response, much less applause. By contrast, live theatrical presentations generate audience activity that is broadly social in nature: the crowd arrives at the theater at about the same time, people mingle and chat during intermissions, and all depart together, often in spirited conversation about the play.Moreover, they communicate during the play: laughter and applause build upon themselves and gain strength from the recognition that others are laughing and applauding. The final ovationunique to live performanceinevitably involves the audience applauding itself, as well as the performers, for understanding and appreciating the theatrical excellence they have all seen together. And plays with political themes can even generate collective political response. In a celebrated example, 1935s Waiting for Lefty was staged as if the audience were a group of union members; by the play's end the audience was yelling Strike! Strike! in response to the play's issues. Obviously, only a live performance could evoke such a response.

  Finally, live performance inevitably has the quality of immediacy. The action of the play is taking place right now, as it is being watched, and anything can happen. Although in most professional productions the changes that occur in performance from one night to another are so subtle that only an expert would notice, the fact is that each night's presentation is unique, and everyone presentthe audience, the cast, and those behind the scenesknows it. This awareness lends an excitement that cannot be achieved by theatrical events that are wholly in the can. One reason for the excitement, of course, is that in live performance, mistakes can happen; this possibility occasions a certain abiding tension, perhaps even an edge of stage fright, which some people say creates the ultimate thrill of the theater. But just as disaster can come without warning, so too can splendor. On any given night, each actor is trying to better his or her previous performance, and no one knows when this collective effort will coalesce into something sublime. The actors' constant striving toward selftranscendence gives the theater a vitality that is missing from performances fixed unalterably on videotape or celluloid. But perhaps most appropriately, the immediacy of live performance embodies the fundamental uncertainty of life. One prime function of theater is to address the uncertainties of human existence, and the very format of live performance presents a moment-to-moment uncertainty right before our eyes. Ultimately, this immediate theater helps us define the questions and confusions of our lives and lets us grapple, in the present, with their implications.

  1. The word distinction in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. idea

  B. blend

  C. definition

  D. difference

  2. Paragraph 1 makes which of the following points about theater and film

  A. Theater audiences tend to be more critical than film audiences.

  B. Actors in the theater are usually not as well-known as film actors.

  C. Theater companies tend to pay more than film companies do for the most distinguished actors.

  D. Audiences respond to actors differently in theater than in film.

  3. Paragraph 1 suggests that the reason distinguished film stars return to live theater is that they

  A. are able to command higher fees as well-known actors

  B. enjoy the excitement of performing before a live audience

  C. have great respect for theatrical drama as an art form

  D. are dissatisfied with the roles they are offered in films and television

  4. The word rapport in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. excitement B. balance C. bond D. fascination

  5. In paragraph 3, which of the following is mentioned as support for the statement that This broad communal response is never developed by television drama

  A. Television drama is rarely about serious social issues.

  B. People do not usually talk to each other while watching television.

  C. Television audiences vary greatly in their interest in television dramas.

  D. People do not typically watch television in large groups.

  6. According to paragraph 3, movie house audiences are different from audiences at live theatrical performances because movie house audiences do not

  A. enjoy humor and jokes as much as theater audiences do

  B. develop broad communal responses

  C. sympathize with the characters they see dramatized

  D. generally applaud unless everyone else is applauding

  7. Why does the author mention the play Waiting for Lefty

  A. To illustrate the power of the communal response to plays

  B. To argue that plays about political subjects have more power to evoke deep feelings in an audience than nonpolitical plays do

  C. To provide an example of a play that was a popular success because it dealt with important political issues

  D. To compare the political importance of plays in recent times with the political importance of earlier plays

  8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage. Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A. Although experts can detect the changes that occur in different performances, the changes are too subtle to be noticed by anyone else.

  B. Although their performances vary only subtly from one night to another, actors in most professional productions want audiences to believe that every performance is unique.

  C. Everyone involved in the professional production of a play knows that very small, almost unnoticeable changes make each performance unique.

  D. In most professional productions, changes are included from one performance to another that are intended to make every performance a unique one.

  9. The word thrill in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. goal B. weakness C. meaning D. excitement

  10. The word vitality in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. style B. energy C. purpose D. quality 11. According to paragraph

  4, on any given night the result of actors' efforts to better their previous performances is that the actors

  A. form long-lasting relationships with the audience

  B. are better able to overcome their stage fright

  C. create a quality that is not present in film or television

  D. are more likely to be admired by audiences

  12. It can be inferred from paragraph 4 that one of the reasons filmed performances are less exciting than live theatrical performances is because

  A. there is little chance that a mistake will occur in a filmed performance

  B. most movies portray situations that audiences have seen before

  C. audiences are interested in seeing famous actors live rather than on a screen

  D. most people are accustomed to going to the movies but view the theater as a special event

  13. Look at the four squaresthat indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Such signs of an audience's engagement thus become part of every performance. Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage. (题目不完整)

  14. Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text. Answer Choices

  A. Although live theater is unlike either video or cinema, the different genressometimes overlap.

  B. While live theater is regarded by most film actors as the most exciting place to perform, many are too troubled by stage fright to perform live.

  C. In the theater, there is a two-way communication between actor and audience that has an effect on the actor's performance.

  D. Audiences at live theatrical performances form a special connection, sharing the common experience of reacting to a live theatrical performance.

  E. Many people go to the theater excited to see in a live performance an actor that they have never seen before except on television or in films.

  F. The excitement of live theater cannot be achieved in any other medium, and its immediacy and uncertainty help us deal with life's fundamental uncertainty.

  与视频和电影不同(尽管有时两者都使用元素),剧院是一个活生生的、实时的事件,表演者和观众相互交流,每个人都知道对方的即时存在。这是一个非常重要的区别。杰出的电影明星,特别是那些有戏剧背景的人(大多数人),通常会回到现场戏剧舞台,尽管电影作品的财政报酬大大增加,而且由于观众的反应剧场提供了相应的刺激和存在感,他们总是更喜欢舞台表演。

  第一个是演员和观众之间的融洽关系。两者呼吸着同样的空气;两者都同时出现在同一空间中,与戏剧所描绘的舞台生活相同。有时他们的共同魅力几乎是显而易见的;每一个演员的表演都受到观众产生或保留其反应的影响:笑声、叹息、掌声、喘息、沉默。戏剧表演永远是舞台和房子之间的双向沟通。

  第二,戏剧在观众中创造了一种关系。当观众们以个人或两三个群体的身份来到影院时,观众们很快发现自己与完全陌生的人有了共同的体验:嘲笑相同的笑话,同情相同的人物,感受同样的启示。这种广泛的公共反应从来不是由电视剧,主要是单独或集中观众(因为频繁的商业广告)只是间歇性地订婚,也不可能发生在电影院,实际上就是让观众认为一对一关系与屏幕和很少(私人或团体放映除外)在一个强大的集体反应爆发,少得多的掌声。相比之下,现场戏剧表演产生的观众活动在本质上是社会性的:人群在同一时间到达剧场,人们在互相交流的时候相互交谈,在一起,经常在激烈的谈话中谈论这出戏。此外,他们在剧中进行交流:笑声和掌声建立在他们自己身上,从别人的笑声和掌声中获得力量。现场演出的最后一个独特之处,不可避免地要包括观众对自己的鼓掌,以及表演者对表演的理解和欣赏,这些都是他们共同看到的。玩弄政治主题甚至可以产生集体的政治反应。在一个著名的例子中,1935s在等待Lefty的演出,好像观众是一群工会成员;演出结束时,观众们大声叫嚷!罢工!为了回应这出戏的问题。显然,只有现场表演才能引起这样的反应。

  最后,现场演出不可避免地具有即时性。这出戏正在上演,正在观看,任何事情都有可能发生。尽管在大多数专业作品中,从一个晚上到另一个夜晚的表演的变化是如此微妙,只有专家才会注意到,事实是每个晚上的演讲都是独一无二的,每个人都有观众、演员和幕后的人知道。这种意识使那些完全在罐头里的戏剧事件无法达到令人兴奋的程度。当然,令人兴奋的一个原因是,在现场表演中,错误可能会发生;这种可能性有时会带来持久的紧张感,甚至可能是怯场的边缘,有些人说这是戏剧的最终刺激。但正如灾难可以毫无预兆地降临,辉煌也一样。在任何一个特定的夜晚,每个演员都在努力改善他或她之前的表现,没有人知道这个集体努力何时会凝聚成某种崇高的东西。演员们不断努力的自我超越给了剧院一种生命力,这种活力在录像带或电影胶片上一成不变的表演中消失了。但也许最恰当的是,现场表演的即时性体现了生活的根本不确定性。戏剧的一个主要功能是解决人类存在的不确定性,而现场表演的形式表现了我们眼前的一刻不确定性。最终,这个直接的戏剧帮助我们定义了我们生活中的问题和困惑,让我们在当下抓住他们的影响。

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