科学家有多种理论猜测：1. 用来为室内提供新鲜空气; 2. shaft的位置对应星星的位置，在埃及历史上星星在信仰上扮演重要的角色; 3. 作为埃及国王死后灵魂通往下一个轮回的通道。
1. shaft是不能抵达金字塔的最外部的，不能交换新鲜空气; 2. 这些金字塔的建立早在信仰中有星星的位置之前; 3. 埃及国王不要下世轮回，他们相信灵魂可以穿墙不需要通道。
Both the author and the lecturer are dealing with the issue of functions of shafts in Egyptian Pyramids. In the listening, the professor refutes all assumptions mentioned in the reading.
First, even though the writer proposed hypothesis that shafts may provide fresh air to the inside chambers, the professor argues against this by indicating the failure of shaft to reach the outside. Without being able to connect the internal pyramids and the external, shafts can’t exchange air.
Second, according to the listening, it is true that constellations play an important role in religious beliefs in Egypt history, but the position of shaft that corresponds to positions of stars in sky fails to prove the function of shafts. Contrary to what the reading believed, pyramids were constructed much before the establishment of relationship between beliefs and constellations.
Third, the lecturer also contradicts the author who regarded shafts as the link and passageway for reincarnation of the king’s soul. According to the listening material, the king doesn’t need reincarnation. On the contrary, the king’s soul could go through walls.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents should limit their children's hours of using electronic devices such as video games and televisions.
Given the prevalent high-tech, children are increasingly exposed to computers, cellphones or other such electronic devices. The time-consuming activities on those technologies have already raised great concerns from the public despite advantages they bring. I am among supporters to call for parents’ proper supervision on time limits of using those devices.
First, limiting the time juveniles spend on electronic devices sets foundation for their academic performance. In order to do well with study, adequate devotions especially enough time to preview and review, is essential. However, it is not so easy for children themselves to be self-disciplined when it comes to computers and cell phones for those devices display much vivid and amusing cartoons, series of TV programs or video games. As a matter of fact, children often cannot help watching one more 15 minutes after another 15 minutes, excessively entertaining themselves, after which they may probably feel exhausted as well as guilty, too exhausted to go on performing well and too guilty to bearing burden. This kind of emotion usually leads them to let academics go. On the opposite side, with limitations on time of using such devices, chances that young students actively come back to textbooks and do practices are quite good because this restriction prevents children from being physically and mentally over exhausted, which is a basic requirement for study.
Second, setting restrictions on use of electronic products provides more opportunities for cultivating versatile talents. Designed to be appealing, video games, TV programs or social medias on electronics mentioned above attract rather great attention from the youth who are supposed to explore themselves and the outside world. Actually, youngsters are isolated from other peers and various activities by excessive use of computers or cellphones. If parents could appropriately supervise their children and help them to arrange the time, young students under 13 could hang out with friends, visit museums, volunteer to serve communities or do bodybuilding so that they may develop communication skills, open their eyes, form the citizenship and maintain healthy both physically and emotionally, which they may be devoid of after being a couch potato or leaning against the chair to constantly click buttons. Even though some of those electronics intend to educate the target audience, adolescents need to be guided by their parents because the seemingly beneficial designs for improving abilities are indirect.
To conclude, based on above arguments, parents should set a rule on how long their children could use electronic devices for the sake of their academic achievement and well-rounded development.