Listen to part of a lecture in an educational psychology class.
Some of you may have heard about learning styles, the idea that there are different ways to teach or learn a material, new information, and these are not equally effective for every learner. Different learners prefer different ways of learning. For examples, a visual learner might want to see the vocabulary words written down or be shown a picture or a chart. An auditory learner would want to hear the new word being used. A kinesthetic, or physical learner, would prefer to physically interact with the material in some way like maybe moving around a set of cards with new vocabulary words written on them. And from this idea of learning style, something called the meshing hypothesis has developed.
Listen to part of a lecture in a Chemistry Class
Of course, everyone here knows you can use a microwave oven to reheat liquids or food. Basically, microwaves produced by the oven - uh - excite molecules in the food. Especially water molecules. And - when these molecules vibrate more and more energetically and bump into the molecules all around them, the heat that’s produced will eventually warm the food. But, before you all begin your next set of experiments using microwave ovens, you also need to understand, that using microwave to heat liquids can be quite different from heating liquids in a metal pot on the stove. In a metal pot on the stove, when the liquid reaches its boiling point, it begins to boil. Bubbles of water vapour rise up to the water’s surface and pop as a result of a process called nucleation. What happens with nucleation is, you start with tiny bubbles in a liquid, and then, when you increase the temperature of the liquid to the boiling point, the liquid around the bubbles starts evaporating, turning into vapour, and moving into the bubble. As the amount of vapour in the bubbles increases, the bubbles begin to grow, slowly at first, then faster and faster, and then they rise to the surface, and pop. Okay, but where do those tiny bubbles come from in the first place, so that nucleation can begin? Well, most metal pots are not totally smooth inside. They have a lot of tiny scratches and dents. And when you pour water into a pot, the water doesn’t completely fill those scratches and dents, so air gets trapped in there and forms those tiny bubbles. Then, when you apply heat, and the water gets hot enough to boil, those bubbles will lucreate as I just described. And, once the water begins to boil, if you keep adding heat, you’ll increase the rate of evaporation, the boiling, but...
1. What does the professor mainly discuss?
A. How film-editing techniques have changed over time
B. The effect of editing on viewers' perceptions of a film
C. Differences between fiction films and documentary films
D. How Kuleshov's experiences as an actor influenced his filmmaking
2. What point does the professor make when he describes a shot of a speaker that cuts to a shot of a crowd?
A. Filmmakers have difficulty manipulating time and space within individual scenes.
B. Kuleshov's early films used editing more extensively than his later films did.
C. Audiences tend to infer relationships between consecutive shots.
D. The filming of a crowd and the speaker on different days confused the viewers.
3. The professor describes Kuleshov's most famous film experiment. In the experiment, what aspect of the film did the audience praise?
A. The actor's ability to portray a variety of different characters
B. The actor's ability to express a wide range of feelings
C. Kuleshov's use of a popular actor
D. Kuleshov's ability to use scenery to create dramatic effects
4. What was Kuleshov's attitude toward the actors in his films?
A. He considered their acting abilities irrelevant to a finished film.
B. He depended on them to bring emotional impact to his films.
C. He believed that their training was often inadequate.
D. He valued their opinions about the filmmaking process.
5. What is the professor's opinion of the Kuleshov effect?
A. He thinks it is only of historical interest.
B. Film historians have overstated its impact on audiences.
C. It has a more dramatic impact in short films than in long films.
D. As a filmmaker, he finds it useful.
6. What does the professor imply about documentary films?
A. Most of them are produced without editing.
B. They tend to require more close-up shots than fiction films do.
C. They do not present events in an entirely neutral way.
D. They make more intentional use of the Kuleshov effect than fiction films do.