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2017年大学英语四级考试写作准则

   2017-10-12   【

2017年大学英语四级考试写作准则

  英语四级写作都有哪些要求呢?下面小编就介绍一下,希望对于大家英语四级写作成绩的提高有帮助。

  一、审题

  1.审体裁(议论文,说明文,描述文)

  审题就是要审作文的题材和体裁。因为什么样的体裁就会用什么样的题材去写。那么体裁包括那些呢?它包括议论文,说明文和描述文。从近些年看,四级作文不是单一的体裁,而是几种体裁的糅合体。例如:

  Directions: For this part, your are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic

  Trying to Be A Good University Student.

  You should write at least 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline(given in Chinese)below:

  做合格大学生的必要性

  做合格大学生的必备条件(可以从德智体方面谈)

  很多人说这种类型的作文是议论文。这是片面的,因为,

  第一段要求写“?必要性”,则是议论文;

  第二段要求写“?必备条件”,则要求写说明文;

  第三段要求写“?这样做”,则要求写描述文。所以在大多数情形下,四级作文是三种体裁的糅合体。

  2.确定相应的写作方法

  我们审题的目的就是根据不同体裁确定不同的写作方法。通过审题,我们可以看出四级作文大都是三段式。如上例第一段为议论体,第二段为说明体,第三段为描述体。而各种文体又有不同的写作方式:议论文:要有论点和论据,而且往往从正反两方面来论述。例如上面第一段的思路是:做合格大学生,会怎么样(这是从正面论述);不能做合格的大学生,又会怎么样(从反面论述);所以我们要做合格的大学生(结论)。说明文:可以从几方面来说明一个问题,可以从德智体三方面来说明合格大学生的必要性。描述文:以“人”为中心描述一个“做”的过程。与上两段相比,本段的主语多为人称代词,他要与第二段相呼应进行描述。

  二、确定主题句

  审完题后,接下来就是如何写的问题。第一步就是确定主题句,主题句既能保证你不跑题,又能帮助你制定写作思路。而写主题句最保险的方法就是直接翻译中文提纲,如上述之段主题句为:

  It is very necessary to be a good university student.(议论体的主题句) There are several respects of necessities to be a good university student.(说明体的主题句)

  What I will do in the future is the following.(描述体的主题句)

  三、组织段落

  确定主题句后,接下来的工作就是展开论述。许多考生真正犯难的也是这一步。最基本的解决办法是扩大词汇量,丰富自己的语法存储。在写作时,语法和词汇都是最基本的。然而,组织段落的能力也是尤为重要的(接下来的连贯与衔接部分,我们更为详细的为大家讲解)。行文时,不只是提供一些information,还要学会运用一些examples, personal experiences, comparisons, deions等等,只有这样,才不会觉得无话可“写”。

  四、连贯与衔接

  1.列举法

  列举的模式通常是

  主题句

  ----example 1

  ----example 2

  ----example 3

  列举时常用for example, for instance, such as, like,thus, take?as an example, to illustrate等词语.

  Nonverbal communication, or "body language," is communication by facial expressions, head or eye movements, hand signals, and body postures. It can be just as important to understanding as words are. Misunderstandings are often amusing but sometimes serious ones can arise between people from different culture if they misinterpret nonverbal signals. Take for example, the differences in meaning of gesture are very common in the United States: a circle made with the thumb and index finger. To an American, it means that everything is Ok. To a Japanese, it means that you are talking about money. In France, it means that something is worthless, and in Greece, it is an obscene gesture. Therefore, an American could unknowingly offend a Greek by using that particular hand signal.

  2.分类法

  一般是在主题句之后,依次罗列段落指示词所表达的几个部分或几个方面。然后,选用丰富的事例对所罗列的各个部分或各个方面进行具体地说明或解释。

  There are three basic kinds of materials that can be found in any good library.

  First, there are books on all subjects, both in English and in many other languages. These books are organized according to subject, title, and author in a central file canned the card catalog. Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of two to four weeks.

  Second, there are reference works, which include encyclopedias, dictionaries, bibliography, atlases, etc., and which generally must be used in the library itself.

  Third, there are periodicals- magazines, newspapers, pamphlets-which are filed

  alphabetically in racks, or which have been filmed to conserve space. Like reference works, periodicals cannot usually be removed from the library.分类时常用:most of all,next,moreover,in addition,besides,furthermore,to begin with,to start with,first of all,first,second,third?

  3.因果关系

  在段落一开头,就用主题句点明其因果关系,然后选用有关材料,客观的罗列某些原因或结果,以阐述中心思想。

  Growing numbers of well-to-do Americans are making the decision to move abroad. They find it impossible in America to walk the streets at night without fear of being raped, mugged, or murdered, nor do they see a way to escape the poisonous air of the cities. They maintain that even American food has become increasingly dangerous to eat. Last but not least, they insist that they are sick of the pace of American life, a pace that leaves no time for relaxation or pleasure.

  因果关系常用语汇:

  because of, so, owing to, thanks to, thus, as a result of, hence, for this reason, consequently, is caused by, lead to, result in

  4.比较法

  主题句必须明确表明所要比较的对象和所要比较的范围,实际上就是罗列两个或两个以上比较对象的相同点。

  Learning English is like building a house. Laying a solid foundation is the first and most important step. In other words, you should read and speak English every day. Memorizing new words and phrases is also helpful. Like building a house, learning English takes some time.

  Sodon’tbe impatient. Remember, Romewasn’tbuilt in a day.

  常用语汇:at the same time, similar to, accordingly, both, show a degree of similarity, similarly, the same as, and?too, in the same way, in a like manner

  5.举例法

  列举事实或举出实例来说明中心思想,是简单易行、具有说服力的写作方法。

  Communicating with other people by telephone is very convenient,

  especially when you have something urgent. For example, if one of your family members is seriously

  ill at night, and you don’t know how to deal with it and where to find a doctor, what can you do? A telephone is the answer. Dial 120 and you will get services from the hospital very soon.

 

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