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翻译资格考试技巧之切分与合并及归化(二)

中华考试网   2017-11-10   【

  主从复合句的分译

  英语复合句汉译时常在分句连接处加以切分,分译成两个或两个以上的句子。例如:

  (1) One day, while out on the bleak moors, Pip is startled by a hulking, menacing man who threatens him if he does not bring him some food immediately.

  匹普外出在阴冷的荒原上游荡时,一个魁梧、凶狠的男子把他吓了一跳。这个男子威胁他,让他立即为他送些食物来。(在who引导的从句前切分)

  (2) All this had come to an end in 1905 when the medical mission was dissolved and several of Mother‘s colleagues were killed in the uprising.

  1905年,这一切都宣布结束了。在一次暴动中,妈妈的几个同事牺牲了,医疗队也解散了。(when处切分)

  D. 其他情况的分译

  有些长句的翻译得根据具体情况、意群的分布等进行灵活处理,合理进行切分,使译文层次分明,观点明确。例如:

  (1) Suddenly the door bursts open and the Time Traveler appears, dirty, disheveled, and bedraggled, with a nasty cut on his chin.

  突然,门猛然开了,时间旅行家出现。他十分肮脏,衣冠不整,满身是泥,下巴颏被严重划伤。(在appear后切分)

  (2) The boy and the woman were already seated by spread table-cloth when the man came down to them, dressed in his business suit and vest and tie and hat as if he expected to meet someone along the way.

  等到男人走过来时,女人和孩子早已挨着地上铺开的桌布边坐好了。男人身穿上班的套装和背心,系着领带,戴着帽子,似乎估计路上会遇到什么人似的。(分词短语前切分)

  二、合并

  一般说来,英语句子要比汉语句子长,英译汉时切分用得较多;但是较口语化的英语句子也比较短,英译汉时有时也得用合并。合并常用于以下二种情况:

  (一) 简单句与简单句的合并

  把原文中的两个或两个以上的简单句合并成一个句子。例如:

  (1) She is intelligent, ambitious and hard-working. She is also good at solving problems.

  她很有才智、雄心勃勃、工作努力,还善于解决问题。(两句合一)

  (2) The door was unlocked. She went inside and sat in a stupor. She was near collapse, barely able to move her swollen feet.

  门没锁上,她走了进去,呆呆地坐了下来,极度的衰弱几乎使她无力挪动她那红肿的双脚。(三句合一)

  (3) I pulled up a chair and sat down. I sat with my legs wide apart at first. But this struck me as being irreverent and too familiar. So I put my knees together and let my hands rest loosely on them.

  我把椅子挪过去坐下,开始两脚分开,但我突然觉得这样显得不尊重,太不拘礼节,便把两膝并拢,把双手随便地放在膝盖上。(四句合一)

  (二) 复合句的合并

  把原文中的主从复合句或并列复合句译成一个简单句或词组。例如:

  (1) We are going to have to be prepared to operate with people who are nuts.

  我们将不得不应付那些难对付的家伙。

  (2) And he found himself trying to suppress a bitterness that was soul-destroying.

  他发现自己在竭力抑制损伤灵魂的苦涩。

  (3) Many people have married whose chances to do so were much inferior to Miss Martha’s.

  许多条件远不如玛莎的人都已结了婚。

  (4) The diagnosis seems in every case to correspond exactly with all the sensations that I have ever felt.

  每次看病的诊断似乎都和我所有的感觉完全相符。

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