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翻译资格考试技巧之切分与合并及归化(一)

中华考试网   2017-11-10   【

  切分

  英语中长句较多, 句中修饰语多且长,使句子结构复杂,所以英译汉时,不能照样克隆复制,而是得根据汉语语法的特点,灵活处理。切分就是一种常用的方法,是指把英语中的长句分解成两个或两个以上的句子。它常包括单词分译、短语分译和句子分译等三种情况。

  (一) 单词分译

  单词分译是指把原文中的一个单词拆译成一个小句或者句子。采用单词分译主要有两个目的:一是为了句法上的需要。由于一些单词在搭配、词义等方面的特点,直译会使句子生硬晦涩,翻译腔十足,而把某个单词分译却能使句子通顺,且不损伤原意。二是为了修饰上的需要,如加强语气,突出重点等。英语中的名词、动词、形容词和副词等都可分译。例如:

  (1)We recognize that China‘s long-term modernization program understandably and necessarily emphasizes economic growth.

  我们认识到,中国的长期现代化计划以发展经济为重点,这是可以理解的,也是必要的。

  (2) Then and there he named the startled General lying wounded on his cot the new Commander in Chief of the Airforce…

  他就在当时当地任命这位躺在榻上治伤的将军为空军总司令,使这位将军吃了一惊。

  (3) A movie of me leaving that foxhole would look like a shell leaving a rifle.

  我离开那个猫儿洞的速度之快,要是拍成电影的话,会象出膛的子弹一样。

  (4) Yet it is painfully apparent that millions of Americans who would never think of themselves as law-breakers, let alone criminals, are taking increasing liberties with the legal codes that are designed to protect and nourish their society.

  显然,数百万美国人从来没有想过自己会违法,更不用说犯罪了,而就是他们正在越来越肆意歪曲旨在保护和培育这个社会的法律条文,这真令人痛心。

  (原文中painfully apparent如照字面译成“痛心地明显的”,不合汉语表达习惯,将painfully单译成句,既突出了重点,表明作者对这一现象感到痛心的心情,又使语言自然流畅。)

  (5) At present people have a tendency to choose the safety of the middle-ground reply.

  现在,人们都倾向于采取不偏不倚的态度来回答问题,因为它安全,不招风险。

  (choose the safety of the middle-ground reply如机械直译成“选择不偏不倚回答问题的安全”,语言晦涩难懂。将safety分译出来则较好地解决了这一问题。)

  (6) Auntie Julia vainly asked each of her neighbours in turn to tell her what Gabriel had said.

  朱利亚姨妈接连向坐在旁边的人打听加布里埃尔刚才说了些什么,却没有问出个所以然来。

  (二) 短语分译

  短语分译是指把原文中的一个短语分译成一个句子。名词短语、分词短语、介词短语等有时都可以分译成句。例如:

  (1) These cheerful little trams, dating back to 1873, chug and sway up the towering hills with bells ringing and people hanging from every opening.

  这些令人欢快的小缆车建于1873年,嘎嚓嘎嚓摇摆爬上高耸的山峦。车上铃儿叮当作响,每个窗口都是人。(介词短语分译)

  (2) The military is forbidden to kill the vessel, a relatively easy task.

  军方被禁止击毁这艘潜艇,虽然要击毁它并不怎么费事。(名词短语分译)

  (3) Invitingly green Angel Island, once a military installation, contains meandering trails and picnic spots ideal for a day’s excursion.

  迷人的天使岛郁郁葱葱,小径蜿蜒,是一日游的理想野餐场所。但在过去它却是一个军事基地。(名词短语分译)

  (三) 句子分译

  句子分译可以分为简单句的分译、并列复合句的分译、主从复合句的分译以及其他情况的分译。

  A. 简单句的分译

  (1) Daybreak comes with thick mist and drizzle.

  黎明时分,大雾弥漫,细雨蒙蒙。

  (2) But another round of war in the region clearly would put strains on international relations.但是,如果该地区再次发生战争,显然会使国际关系处于紧张状态。

  B. 并列复合句的分译

  并列英语复合句常常在分句连接处加以切分,译成两个或两个以上的句子。例如:

  (1) I sat with his wife in their living room, looking out the glass doors to the backyards, and there was Allen‘s pool, still covered with black plastic that had been stretched across it for winter.

  我跟他妻子一起坐在他们家的起居室里,望着玻璃门外的后院。后院里有阿伦的游泳池,上面还盖着过冬时铺上去的黑色塑料蓬。(在连词and处切分)

  (2) On her once familiar street, as in any unused channel, an unfamiliar queerness had silted up; a cat wove itself in and out of railings, but no human eye watched Mrs Drover’s return.

  走在一度熟悉的大街上,就像在一条没有人走过的道路上一样,她心里充满了从未有过的新奇。一只猫在栏杆那儿绕来绕去,但是没有人留意特罗弗太太回来。(在;处切分)

  (3) The entire cable-car system recently got an overhaul after more than a century of operations, so you are on firm ground even if the streets seem to be tilting beneath you.

  在运行了一个世纪之后,最近对整个缆车系统进行了彻底检修。所以即使你觉得街道似乎在下面倾斜,你在缆车上仍很安全。(在连词so处切分)

  (4) The recruitment of Chinese labor was not universally accepted in racially conscious 19th century America and some white workers were unsettled by their appearance in large numbers.

  在种族意识十分强的19世纪的美国,招募中国劳工的做法并非普遍为人接受。由于工地上大批出现中国劳工,某些白人工人感到心绪不宁。(在连词and处切分)

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