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春节的传说---春联和门神

中华考试网   2010-12-23   【
  春节的传说---春联和门神
  据说贴春联的习俗,大约始于一千多年前的后蜀时期,这是有史为证的。此外根据《玉烛宝典》,《燕京岁时记》等著作记载,春联的原始形式就是人们所说的“桃符”。
  在中国古代神话中,相传有一个鬼域的世界,当中有座山,山上有一棵覆盖三千里的大桃树,树梢上有一只金鸡。每当清晨金鸡长鸣的时候,夜晚出去游荡的鬼魂必赶回鬼域。鬼域的大门坐落在桃树的东北,门边站着两个神人,名叫神荼、郁垒。如果鬼魂在夜间干了伤天害理的事情,神荼、郁垒就会立即发现并将它捉住,用芒苇做的绳子把它捆起来,送去喂虎。因而天下的鬼都畏惧神荼、郁垒。于是民间就用桃木刻成他们的模样,放在自家门口,以避邪防害。后来,人们干脆在桃木板上刻上神荼、郁垒的名字,认为这样做同样可以镇邪去恶。这种桃木板后来就被叫做“桃符”。
  到了宋代,人们便开始在桃木板上写对联,一则不失桃木镇邪的意义,二则表达自己美好心愿,三则装饰门户,以求美观。又在象征喜气吉祥的红纸上写对联,新春之际贴在门窗两边,用以表达人们祈求来年福运的美好心愿。
  为了祈求一家的福寿康宁,一些地方的人们还保留着贴门神的习惯。据说,大门上贴上两位门神,一切妖魔鬼怪都会望而生畏。在民间,门神是正气和武力的象征,古人认为,相貌出奇的人往往具有神奇的禀性和不凡的本领。他们心地正直善良,捉鬼擒魔是他们的天性和责任,人们所仰慕的捉鬼天师钟馗,即是此种奇形怪相。所以民间的门神永远都怒目圆睁,相貌狰狞,手里拿着各种传统的武器,随时准备同敢于上门来的鬼魅战斗。由于我国民居的大门,通常都是两扇对开,所以门神总是成双成对。
  唐朝以后,除了以往的神荼、郁垒二将以外,人们又把秦叔宝和尉迟恭两位唐代武将当作门神。相传,唐太宗生病,听见门外鬼魅呼号,彻夜不得安宁。于是他让这两位将军手持武器立于门旁镇守,第二天夜里就再也没有鬼魅搔扰了。其后,唐太宗让人把这两位将军的形象画下来贴在门上,这一习俗开始在民间广为流传。
  Said that the custom of New Year's scrolls, some began more than a thousand years ago, Shu period, which is a history as a certificate. Moreover, according to "jade candle Collection", "Yenching at the age of mind" and other works recorded New Year's couplets of the original form is what people call "Tao Fu."
  In ancient Chinese mythology, the legend there is a ghost town of the world, among them, the mountains, the mountains are a big coverage of 3000 where peach trees, trees on a golden rooster. Whenever the early morning when the Golden Rooster Bell night wandering ghosts will go back to ghost town. Re-cycle the door is located in the northeast peach tree, the door stood two god-man called God tea, Yu Lei. If the ghosts at night, did the murderous things, God tea, Yu-base will immediately find and catch it with a mountain to do a rope reed tied it up, sent to feed tigers. And thus the world of ghosts fear God Tu, Yu Lei. Mahogany carved with folk on their appearance, on their own doorstep, in order to ward off evil anti-harm. Later, people just board inscribed with God in the cherry wood tea, Yu Lei's name, believing it can do the same town of evil to evil. This Mahogany board later was called "Tao Fu."
  By the Song Dynasty, people started writing couplets in cherry wood board, a town of evil without losing the meaning of cherry wood, 2 to express their good wishes, three decorative portals, in order to aesthetics. Again a symbol of festivity in the auspicious couplets written on red paper, when the spring attached to doors and windows on both sides to express the people to pray for blessing and bringing good wishes for the coming year.
  In order to pray for one of the Fu-Corning, a number of local people in colorful paste door god habits. It is said that the door to put up two door gods, all demons would be terrified. In the civil society, door god is a symbol of righteousness and force, the ancients believed that looks surprisingly tend to have a wonderful disposition and exceptional ability. They carefully upright kind, Buffy the escapement magic is their nature and responsibilities, that people admired Buffy the Fearless Zhong Kui, that is such a strange strange-shaped phase. Therefore, the door god people are always angry staring eyes, looks ferocious, holding a variety of traditional weapons, ready to come with the courage to come to fight the ghosts. As the door of our homes, usually two off, so keeper are always in pairs.
  Tang Dynasty, in addition to the God of the past, Tu and Yu Lei 2 will be outside, it is again the Tang Dynasty Qin Shubao and Yuchi Jingde two generals as a goalkeeper. According to legend, Emperor Taizong sick, I heard ghosts outside the call sign, no peace all night. So he let the two generals stand hand-held weapons, guarding the door the next day, no more ghosts on the night of the harassment. Subsequently, the Emperor Taizong people put down on canvas the image of the two generals attached to the door, this custom began to spread widely in the folk.
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