Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage:
Archaeology, like many academic words, comes from Greek and means, more or less, “the study of old things”. So, it is really a part of the study of history. However, most historians use paper evidence, such as letters, paintings and photographs，but archaeologists (考古学家) learn from the objects left behind by the humans of long ago. Normally, these are the hard materials that don't break down or disappear very quickly—things like human bones and objects made from stone and metal.
It is very unusual to find anything more than the hard evidence of history--normally, the bacteria (细菌) in the air eat away at soft materials, like bodies, clothes and things made of wood. Occasionally, things are different.
In 1984, two men made an amazing discovery while working in a bog called Lindow Moss, in the north of England. A bog is a very wet area of earth, with a lot of plants growing in it. It can be like a very big and very thick vegetable soup—walk in the wrong place and you can sink and disappear forever. The men were working when one of them saw something sticking out—a human foot! Naturally, the men called the police，who then found the rest of the body. Was it a case of murder? Possibly--but it was a death nearly two thousand years old. The two men had found a body from the time of the Roman invasion of Britain. Despite being so old, this body had skin, muscles, hair and internal organs—the scientists who examined him were able to look inside the man's stomach and find the food that he had eaten for his last meal!
Why was this man so well preserved? (76) It was because he was in a very watery environment, safe fi:om the bacteria that need oxygen to live. Also, the water in the bog was very acidic. The acid preserved the man's skin in the way that animal skin is preserved for leather coats and shoes.
How did he die? Understandably, archaeologists and other scientists wanted to know more about the person that they called,“Lindow Man”. (77) His hands and fingernails suggested that he hadn't done heavy manual work in his life—he could have been a rich man. They found that he hadn't died by accident. The archaeologists believe that he was sacrificed to three different gods.
1. Which language does the word “archaeology”come from?
A. French. B. Greek. C. Roman. D. German.
2. The word “these” in the first paragraph refers to_______.
A. letters B. photographs C. paintings D. objects
3. Which of the following helped to preserve“Lindow Man”?
A. Ice and Iow temperature. B. Bacteria and oxygen.
C. Soil and energy. D. Acid and water.
4. According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. “Lindow Man”was named after the person who first found him.
B. Historians usually use paper evidence, while archaeologists use hard evidence.
C. “Lindow Man” was found by two archaeologists in the south of England.
D. “Lindow Man”was good at manual work.
5. Which is the best title for the passage?
A. What Is Archaeology?
B. Archaeology and History
C. An Amazing Archaeological Discovery
D. The Death of“Lindow Man”
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage:
The city has always been an engine of intellectual life, from the 18th-century cafes of London, where citizens gathered to discuss chemistry and politics, to the Left Bank bars of modern Paris, where Picasso talked about modem art. Without the metropolis, we might not have had the great art of Shakespeare.
And yet, city life isn't easy. Now scientists have begun to examine how the city affects the brain, and the results are depressing. Just being in an urban environment, they have found, impairs (损害) our basic mental processes. (78) After spending a few minutes on a crowded city street, the brain is less able to hold things in memory, and suffers from reduced self-control. While it's long been recognized that city life is exhausting, this new research suggests that cities actually dull our thinking, sometimes dramatically so.
One of the main forces at work is a complete lack of nature, which is surprisingly beneficial for the brain. Studies have demonstrated, for instance, that hospital patients recover more quickly when they can see trees from their windows, and that women living in public housing are better able to focus when their apartments overlook a lawn. Even these glimpses of nature improve brain performance, it seems, because they provide a mental break from the urban life.
This research arrives just as humans cross an important milestone (里程碑). For the first time in history, the majority of people live in cities. Instead of inhabiting wide-open spaces, we're crowded into concrete jungles, surrounded by traffic and millions of Strangers. In recent years, it's become clear that such unnatural surroundings have important implications for our mental and physical health, and can powerfully alter how we think.
This research is also leading some scientists to dabble (涉足) in urban design, as they look for ways to make the city less damaging to the brain. (79) The good news is that even slight alterations, such as planting more trees in the inner city or creating urban parks with a greater variety of plants, can significantly reduce the negative side effects of city life. The mind needs nature, and even a little bit can be a big help.
6. Which of the following is the main idea of this passage?
A. The city inspires talented people.
B. The city hurts your brain.
C. The city has many pleasures and benefits.
D. The city seriously affects the natural balance.
7. The word “metropolis” in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to_______.
A. citizen B. nature C. city D. stress
8. People have just come to realize that_______.
A. human attention is a scarce resource
B. city life can make people very tired
C. the city is an engine of intellectual life
D. an urban environment is damaging to the brain
9. What is the factor mentioned in the third paragraph that helps the hospital patients recover more quickly?
A. Nature. B. Better treatment.
C. Experienced doctors. D. Good medicine.
10. According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. Different aspects (方面) of an urban environment, such as the crowded streets, can lead to an increase in self-control.
B. Small changes in urban design, cannot reduce the negative side effects of city life.
C. For the first time in history, the earth's population is more urban than rural.
D. A walk down a busy city street will improve brain performance.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage:
Breastfeeding (母乳喂养) for a month or longer appears to reduce a woman's risk of getting diabetes (糖病) later in life, according to a new study. The breastfeeding and diabetes link has been reported in other studies, according to researcher Eleanor Schwarz. Yet, her study makes the link easier to believe. Her study is published in a journal of medicine in America. Schwarz and her colleagues looked at data about breastfeeding practices. They evaluated data on 2,233 women f~om Califomia. Of those, 405 were not mothers, 1,125 were mothers who breastfed for at least a month, and 703 were mothers who had never breastfed. They were 40 to 78 years old.
According to Schwarz's study, the risk of getting a diagnosis (诊断) of Type 2 diabetes for women who breastfed all their children for a month or longer was similar to that of women who had not given birth. But mothers who had never breastfed were nearly twice as likely to develop diabetes as women who had never given birth. Mothers who never breastfed were about 1.4 times as likely to develop diabetes as women who breastfed for one to three months, Schwarz found.
While one month of breastfeeding appears to make a difference, Schwarz says, even longer is better. (80) “Previous studies have shown the longer the mom breastfeeds, the more benefit for her body.” Many experts recommend breastfeeding for six months and continuing for a year, she says.
The diabetes-breastfeeding link is probably explained by belly fat. Mothers, who don't breastfeed, as they get older, may have more belly fat, as breastfeeding helps new mothers take off weight. “Belly fat increases the risk of diabetes as you get older,” she says.
The finding isn't surprising at all, says Kimberly Gregory. She often gives advice to women who get diabetes (occurring during pregnancy (怀孕)) that they are at risk for later getting Type 2 diabetes and suggests they breastfeed. The new findings will probably inspire Gregory to add to the-advice she gives moms-to-be about the benefits of breastfeeding. She often focuses on the benefits to the baby.
11. According to the first paragraph, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. About two thousand and two hundred old women took part in the study.
B. Eleanor Schwarz's research program was about men and women who suffered from diabetes.
C. Over one fifths of the women never got married.
D. Eleanor Schwarz's results seem more reliable.
12. According to Schwarz's findings, who are more likely to get diabetes later in life?
A. Those mothers who had never breastfed.
B. Those mothers who never gave birth.
C. Those mothers who breastfed for a month.
D. Those mothers who breastfed for six months.
13. Which of the following statements would Schwarz agree with?
A. Breastfeeding is not advisable because it is not good for a mom to keep a good shape.
B. Breastfeeding can greatly reduce a mother's chances of getting all kinds of serious disease.
C. Breastfeeding for a month is highly recommended: the longer, the better.
D. Breastfeeding for a month or longer makes babies smarter.
14. What does the author mean by “moms-to-be” in the last paragraph?
A. Women who are pregnant, especially for the first time.
B. Women who dream of having babiesfor the first time.
C. Women who already have children.
D. Women who have just got babies for the first time.
15. Which of the following is an appropriate title for this passage?
A. Breasffeeding May Enhance Babies' Chances of Survival
B. Breasffeeding May Lower Moms' Diabetes Risk
C. Breasffeeding May Become Very Fashioaable in Near Future
D. Breasffeeding May Help Women Lose Weight
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