Though the harmful effects of plastic on wildlife and human health are welldocumented, this material is hard to avoid.Nearly everything we touch, from grocery bags to drink bottles, to food packaging, contains plastic.Now, Amsterdam's Ekoplaza supermarket is making it a little easier for consumers to reduce consumption of singleuse plastic bags and containers, which are blocking our landfills at alarming rates, with a special plasticfree aisle (通道).Believed to be the world's first, the aisle has 700 products on sale including rice, beans, yogurt, chocolate milk, cereal, snacks and meat.
While items still require packaging, everything is housed inside reusable or recyclable containers made of glass, metal or cardboard.The unique idea was given to the grocerychain officials by UKbased environmental group A Plastic Planet, which takes the lead to advocate for at least one plasticfree aisle in supermarkets around the globe.The nonprofit has even created a signature “plasticfree” mark to help consumers identify ecofriendly packaging. “This is a consumerled campaign，” said a group cofounder Sian Sutherland. “We're a grassroots organization.So obviously we're working with industry and the government, but most importantly, we represent the public.”
Ekoplaza, which plans to roll out the plasticfree aisles across its 74 stores by the end of the year, is not the only company trying to reduce plastic waste.In Berlin, the Original Unverpackt grocery store has been trying to change customer habits since 2014 by selling everything, from grain to produce and even soaps without plastic packaging.The supermarket, which requires customers to bring their own reusable containers, even sells chewable toothpaste that needs no tubes.
Though it is encouraging to see companies trying to make a difference, for real change to happen, consumers have to avoid products encased in plastics, even if it means giving up their favorite food or drink.As Sutherland put it, “Plastic food and drink packaging remains useful and yet a destructive presence on the earth for centuries afterwards.”
1.What does Ekoplaza want to do by setting up a plasticfree aisle?
A.Cut down managing cost.
C.Make shopping much easier.
D.Increase the amount of sales.
解析：选B 细节理解题。根据第一段第三句“Now, Amsterdam's Ekoplaza supermarket is making ... with a special plasticfree aisle (通道).”可知，Ekoplaza设立无塑料通道是为了减少塑料包装，故选B。
2.Which of the following can make a real difference?
3.What does Sutherland think of plastic packaging in the future?
A.It will be of no use to consumers.
B.It will exist for a long time.
C.It will disappear in this century.
D.It will replace other containers.
解析：选B 细节理解题。根据最后一段最后一句中的“Plastic food and drink packaging remains useful and yet a destructive presence on the earth for centuries afterwards.”可知，塑料包装还会存在很长一段时间，故选B。
4.What might be the title of the passage?
A.Plastics Are Harmful to the Environment
B.Nonprofits Can Help the Supermarkets
C.Consumers Should Change Shopping Habits
D.Supermarkets Take Action for a Cleaner Planet
John Carpenter didn't like to buy toys that somebody else had made.He liked the fun of __1__ them himself.The thought that they were his own work __2__ him.
Tom, one of his playmates, thought a toy was worth nothing __3__ it cost a great deal of money.He never tried to make __4__， but bought all his toys.“Come and look at my horse，” said he, one day，“it __5__ a dollar, and it is such a beauty!” John was soon __6__ his friend's horse, and he was examining it __7__ to see how it was made.The same evening he tried to make a __8__ one for himself.He went into the wood shed and __9__ two pieces of wood — one for the head of his horse, the other for the body.It took him two or three days to shape them to his __10__.But what about the wheels? This __11__ him.With great efforts, he finally got some __12__ pieces of wood which could suit his __13__.Proud of his great __14__，he ran to his friend Tom, crying，“Now then, Tom, here is my horse — look!”
“Well, that is a __15__ horse，”said Tom，“ Where did you buy it?”
“I didn't buy it，”__16__ John, “I made it.”
“You made it yourself! Oh, well, it's a good horse for you to make.__17__ it is not as good as mine.Mine cost a __18__， and yours didn't cost anything.”
“It was real fun to make it, though，” said John, and away he ran with his horse __19__ after him.
Does it really cost nothing and all his efforts are __20__? Of course not, I will tell you.John Carpenter now is a master workman, and will soon have a shop of his own.
解析：选D 根据上文“He liked the fun of __1__ them himself.”可知，他喜欢制作玩具的乐趣，可见这个自己制作玩具的想法让他非常高兴(delighted)。
3.A.since B.in case
C.unless D.as if
解析：选A 根据后半句“but bought all his toys”可知，他只是买玩具，从不试着自己做任何东西(anything)。
解析：选A 从空后的“to see how it was made”以及下文所做的玩具马可知，他耐心地(patiently)观察着。
9.A.picked out B.took up
C.picked up D.came over
解析：选A 根据常识可知，他走进木棚，挑选(pick out)出两块木头，一块做马头，另一块做身体。
解析：选D 根据下文他对所做的马感到骄傲可知，他花了两、三天时间才做出令他满意的(to one's satisfaction)形状。
解析：选C 根据前一句“But what about the wheels?”及后一句“With great efforts, he finally got some ...”可知，他不知用什么做轮子，因此这让他很困惑(puzzled)。
解析：选A 根据下文“it's a good horse for you to make”可知，John做的是一匹精致的(delicate)马。
解析：选D 根据第5空中的“a dollar”可知，汤姆说他的马是花一美元买的。
20.A.for sure B.in vain
C.in order D.in case
解析：选B 根据空前“Does it really cost nothing(这真的没有什么价值吗?)”和空后的内容可判断这里是问“他所有的努力都白费了(in vain)吗”?
A hutong is an ancient city street typical in Beijing.__1__ (surround) the Forbidden City, many were built during the Yuan, Ming and Qing __2__ (dynasty).In order to establish the strongest power, emperors planned the city and arranged the residential areas.__3__ center of the city Beijing was the royal palace — the Forbidden City.
At the end of the Qing Dynasty, after __4__ (close) China came under the influence from abroad, many old hutongs lost __5__ (they) former neat arrangement.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, hutong conditions __6__ (improve).But in recent years, the houses in many hutongs have been pulled __7__ and replaced by modern buildings.And the hutong today is fading into the shade for __8__ tourists and local people.
However, in the urban district of Beijing houses along hutongs still occupy one __9__ (three) of the total area, providing housing for half population, so many hutongs __10__ (survive).In this respect, we see the old in the new in Beijing as an ancient yet modern city.
2.dynasties 考查名词复数。根据该句中的“Yuan, Ming and Qing”可知，该处指三个朝代，且dynasty为可数名词，故用复数形式。
3.The 考查冠词。北京城的中心是皇宫——紫禁城。根据该句中的“of the city Beijing”可知，该处特指“北京城的中心”，故用定冠词The。
5.their 考查代词。根据空后的名词短语“former neat arrangement”可知，空处修饰该名词短语，故用形容词性物主代词。
6.were improved 考查动词时态、语态和主谓一致。1949年中华人民共和国成立以后，胡同的状况得到了改善。该句主语为“hutong conditions”，和动词improve之间是被动关系，故用被动语态;因为主语“hutong conditions”为复数，且根据该句中的时间状语可知，该句介绍过去发生的事情，故用were improved。
7.down 考查介词。但是近年来，许多胡同中的房子被拆毁，取而代之的是现代化的建筑。pull down为固定搭配，意为“拆毁”。
8.both 考查连词。both ...and ...为固定搭配，意为“两者都……”。
10.have survived 考查动词时态。根据该句中的“still occupy”可知，该空表示过去的动作对现在产生的影响，故用现在完成时。