What Is a Dream?
For centuries, people have wondered about thestrange things that they dream about. Some psychologists say that thisnighttime activity of the mind has no special meaning. Others，however， think that dreams are an importantpart of our lives. In fact, many experts believe that dreams can tell us abouta person’s mind and emotions.
Before modern times, many people thought thatdreams contained messages from God. ___E________(46)
The Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud1，was probably the first person tostudy dreams scientifically. In his famous book, The interpretation of Dreams (1900), Freud wrote that dreams are anexpression of a person’s wishes. He believed that dreams allow people toexpress the feelings, thoughts, and fears that they are afraid to express inreal life.
The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung2 wasonce a student of Freud’s. Jung，however，had a different idea about dreams. Jung believed that the purpose ofa dream was to communicate a message to the dreamer. ______F_____(47) Forexample, people who dream about falling may learn that they have too high anopinion of themselves. On the other hand, people who dream about being heroesmay learn that they think too little of themselves.
Modern-day psychologists continue to developtheories about dreams. For example, psychologist William Domhoff from theUniversity of California, Santa Cruz，believes that dreams are tightly linked to a person’s daily life,thoughts, and behavior. ______C_____(48)
Domhoff believes that there is a connectionbetween dreams and age. His research shows that children do not dream as muchas adults. According to Domhoff, dreaming is a mental skill that needs time todevelop.
He has also found a link between dreams andgender. His studies show that the dreams of men and women are different. ____A_______(49)This is not true of women’s dreams.3 Domhoff found this genderdifference in the dreams of people from 11 cultures around the world, includingboth modern and traditional ones.
Can dreams help us understand ourselves?Psychologists continue to try to answer this question in different ways. _____D______(50)The dream may have meaning, but it does not mean that some terrible event willactually take place. It’s important to remember that the world of dreams is notthe real world.
A. For example, the people in men's dreamsare often other men. and the dreams often involve fighting.
B. Men and women dream about differentthings.
C. A criminal, for example, might dreamabout crime.
D. However, one thing they agree on this:If you dream that something terrible is going to occur, you shouldn't panic.
E. It was only in the twentieth centurythat people started to study dreams in a scientific way.
F. He thought people could leam more aboutthemselves by thinking about their dreams.