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职称英语《卫生类》真题每日一讲(2)

   2017-03-20   【

  每日一讲

  Ebola Outbreak

  1.You are likely aware that several countries in West Africa are batting an Ebola Outbreak. Ebola is a dangerous and often lethal viral infection. Scientists believe that humans contracted the virus by eating the meat of rare animals .It is now believed that bats are the primary carriers of the virus.

  2. To date ,there are only three major countries in West Africa experiencing a major outbreak :Sierra Leone ,Liberia and Guinea .However ,other countries such as Nigeria have reported confirmed cases of Ebola within their borders.

  3.Unless you recently visited one of the three affected West countries, your risk of contracting the virus is virtually zero .Unlike other recent airborne virus outbreaks like SARS, the Ebola virus can only be spread through direct contact with an infected person .Specifically ,Ebola is spread through contact with body fluids. Though ,the virus is transmittable, only an infected person exhibiting symptoms is communicable .

  4.The signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and patients typically exhibit them after a week of contracting the virus .Symptoms may appear as early as two days or as late as three weeks after initial infection. Symptoms include disgust, weakness and stomach pain. More uncommon symptoms include chest pain, bleeding and sore throat.

  5.Ebola is devastating because of its ability to attack and replicate in every organ of the body .This causes an overstimulation of the body's inflammatory response ,causing the flu-like symptoms .The virus also causes bleeding and impairs the body's normal clotting mechanism(凝血机制),making bleeding even more severe .Loss of blood volume and decreased organ perfusion(器官灌注),ultimately lead to organ failure and death.

  6.The current outbreak is the deadliest viral outbreak in over 35 years .While diseases such as the malaria (疟疾)are far more communicable ,Ebola is one of the world's most fatal viral infections. Ebola's fatality rate exceeds that of SARS.

  (单项选择题)The Ebola virus transmits by contact with _______.

  A.infected body fluids

  B.against the outbreak severity

  C.the mode of transmission

  D.the initial days of being infected

  E.three countries in West Africa

  F.within a wide range of days

  【答案】A

  【考点】2015

  【解析】第三段中Specifically ,Ebola is spread through contact with body fluids.可知,体液的接触是主要传播途径,故选则A。

纠错评论责编:Aimee
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