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2018年公共英语三级阅读理解模拟题(8)

中华考试网   2018-05-09   【

2018年公共英语三级阅读理解模拟题(8)

  Directions:

  Read the following three texts. Answer thequestions on each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWERSHEET 1.

  When Amber Post started graduate school inphysics at Princeton, her goal was the same as her male colleagues' : ateaching post at a major university. Now with her Ph.D. just a year away, Postis thinking instead about working for a policymaking agency in Washington.Although Princeton, with Shirley Tilghman as the president, is welcoming tofemale scientists, Post senses that her re- ception in the larger academicworld might be chillier. At famous universities, the percentage of women earningdoctor's degrees in science and engineering is considerably higher than thepercent- age of women professors--whi.ch means that a lot of talented women Ph.D. s like Post leave cam- pus for jobs in government or industry instead ofclimbing the teaching ladder.

  Stopping this female brain drain has been achallenge for years. At a recent academic confer- ence, Harvard presidentLawrence Summers suggested that women aren't succeeding because they lackability in math and science by nature. His comments drew immediate criticism.Indeed, scien- tists have uncovered some differences in male and female brains,but it's unclear how these differ- ences affect talent.

  Summers proposed two other possible problemsfor women:the conflict between work and life, and absolute prejudice againstwomen( which he seemed to dismiss). Many women scientists blame these twoproblems for the lack of women professors. Junior teachers need to spend their20s and 30s on research and publication. Those are the same years when women havechildren. Time is an enemy for women in other professions, especially law andmedicine. But while women doctors and lawyers benefit from lots of successfulrole models, academic science continues to belong to men chiefly. "Theatmosphere isn't compelling or welcoming, "Post says. "Too many of myfemale friends drop out of graduate programs simply because the environment isdisappointing, not because they can't handle the math. "

  Even against this background, there has beensome progress. More universities are pushing hard with stepped-up recruitmentefforts and trying hard to assist staff members with young families. Butultimately, the best remedy against prejudice would be more women on top,like Princeton's Tilghman.

  46. Amber Post is thinking about a job ingovernment because __

  A.it isthe usual goal of the Ph.D. students at Princeton

  B she is doubtful about her future inthe academic world

  C.it isdifficult to get a teaching post at major universities

  D.shefears that she may not graduate with a Ph. D. degree

  47. According to the text, the gap inpercentage between women Ph.D. s and women professors indicates that

  A.universities lack competitiveness in the recruitment market

  B.a lotof women professors have chosen to leave universities

  C.few womenPh. D. s are qualified for the competitive campus

  D.universitiesare faced with the problem of female brain drain

  48. According to the writer, Summers'comments on women's ability seem to be based on

  A. hisown attitude towards women scientists   B.hisrecent study on women's weaknesses

  C. the latest findings about human brains  D.the conventional opinion about talents

  49. We can infer that the most seriousproblem of women teachers is

  A. theirconflict with male colleagues  B. thetrouble in balancing work and life

  C.theircooperation with male colleagues   D.thedifficulty in their career advancement

  50. The best solution to the female braindrain in universities is to

  A. create more academic posts for women  B. offerhelp to women with young children

  C.dismissthose with prejudice against women  D. promote more women to leadershippositions

  参考译文

  凯伦和肯·穆林这对年轻夫妇居住在克利夫兰,两人都上班,家里有50本烹饪书和2个设备齐全的厨房。但是他们很少做饭;取而代之的是,他们通常会在下班回家的路上去超市,挑选两份肉糜糕和一罐速食土豆。“我的工作,”卡伦说道,“就是把沙拉从袋子里倒出来。”

  在第一份冷冻快餐出现半个世纪之后,食品产业正在实现它长久追求的梦想,让更多像穆林夫妇这样的人最终从在家做饭这样毫无报酬的劳动中解放出来,并且最有利可图的方式就是将奶牛变成肉糜糕。在美国,厨房里的桌子渐渐不再用来切菜或削皮,而是供需要把外带食品放进盘子里,或是连放盘子里都嫌麻烦的人使用。据极有影响力的食品业调查员哈利·鲍尔泽说,在过去的十年中,美国居民从柜台买来的外带食物增长了24%。“过去我们认为微波炉是烹饪设备,”哈利·鲍尔泽说道,“但是现在发现它可以热披萨。”

  整个美国的商业模式都改变了。超市外带柜台从前是放卖不出去的裹着酱汁的鸡肉的地方,现在越来越像高端公司的自助餐厅,那里有寿司吧和小炒站。

  一位心理学家认为向健康饮食发展的趋势对比是有责任的:美国人终于知道吃炸鸡不好,所以他们在家吃,这样没人能看得到。

  当然,有些人不愿意在家做饭,比如芝加哥的单身汉史蒂夫·川克希勒,他是剧场制作人,他的冰箱里只有些橘子汁、葡萄酒和剩菜。

  有些人一定在用那些烹饪书,对吧?“人们没有时间做饭;我想他们都在床上阅读烹饪书。”烹饪书作者洛克萨妮·戈尔德说道。

  这不仅仅是时间的问题。在某种程度上,像寿司这类食品的流行加速了外带食品的流行,在这些食品中,有一些甚至是连胆大的美国厨师都不敢在家中尝试做的。外带食品还满足了人们的另一项需求,就是可以感受在家中烹饪的气氛。

  参考答案及解析

  46.D【精析】细节题。根据第一段第二句“Yet they rarely...instead,on their way home from work they usually stop at a supermarket andchoose two portions of meat loaf and a container of ready—to—serve potatoes.”可知,“但是他们很少做饭;取而代之的是,他们通常会在下班回家的路上去超市,挑选两份肉糜卷和一罐速食土豆。”由此可知,穆林夫妇经常在家吃外带食物。故选D。

  47.C【精析】细节题。根据第二段第一句“A half-century...the food industryis approaching its long—sought dream of relieving people like the Mullins of unpaid labor in the final,and arguably most profitable,step by which a cow getsturned into meat loaf.”可知,食品产业长久追求的梦想,是向人们提供快餐,使人们不用进行没有报酬的劳动,比如做饭。故选C。

  48.C【精析】细节题。根据第二段第二、三句“In-creasingly,tables in America’s kitchens are used not for cutting or peeling but for putting takeout food onto plates.For those who ever bother with plates.”可知,“在美国,厨房里的桌子渐渐不再用来切菜或削皮,而是供需要把外带食品放进盘子里,或是连放盘子里都嫌麻烦的人使用。”由此可知,有些人可能连盘子都不使用。故选C。

  49.A 【精析】细节题。根据第三段第二句“Super-market takeout counters,formerly a place where unsold chickens were coated with sauce,increasingly resemble high-end corporate cafeterias.with sushi bars andstir.frystations.”可知,“超市外带柜台从前是放卖不出去的裹着酱汁的鸡肉的地方,现在越来越像高端公司的自助餐厅,那里有寿司吧和小炒站。”故选A。

  50.C【精析】细节题。根据最后一段最后一句“And takeout fills another need as well,for the atmosphereof the home.cooked dinner.”可知,“外带食品还满足了人们的另一项需求,就是可以感受在家中烹饪的气氛,”而且前文提到穆林夫妇不做饭,而是选择把外带食品带回家加工然后一起吃饭。故选C。

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