Read the following three texts. Answer thequestions on each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWERSHEET 1.
When Amber Post started graduate school inphysics at Princeton, her goal was the same as her male colleagues' : ateaching post at a major university. Now with her Ph.D. just a year away, Postis thinking instead about working for a policymaking agency in Washington.Although Princeton, with Shirley Tilghman as the president, is welcoming tofemale scientists, Post senses that her re- ception in the larger academicworld might be chillier. At famous universities, the percentage of women earningdoctor's degrees in science and engineering is considerably higher than thepercent- age of women professors--whi.ch means that a lot of talented women Ph.D. s like Post leave cam- pus for jobs in government or industry instead ofclimbing the teaching ladder.
Stopping this female brain drain has been achallenge for years. At a recent academic confer- ence, Harvard presidentLawrence Summers suggested that women aren't succeeding because they lackability in math and science by nature. His comments drew immediate criticism.Indeed, scien- tists have uncovered some differences in male and female brains,but it's unclear how these differ- ences affect talent.
Summers proposed two other possible problemsfor women:the conflict between work and life, and absolute prejudice againstwomen( which he seemed to dismiss). Many women scientists blame these twoproblems for the lack of women professors. Junior teachers need to spend their20s and 30s on research and publication. Those are the same years when women havechildren. Time is an enemy for women in other professions, especially law andmedicine. But while women doctors and lawyers benefit from lots of successfulrole models, academic science continues to belong to men chiefly. "Theatmosphere isn't compelling or welcoming, "Post says. "Too many of myfemale friends drop out of graduate programs simply because the environment isdisappointing, not because they can't handle the math. "
Even against this background, there has beensome progress. More universities are pushing hard with stepped-up recruitmentefforts and trying hard to assist staff members with young families. Butultimately, the best remedy against prejudice would be more women on top,like Princeton's Tilghman.
46. Amber Post is thinking about a job ingovernment because __
A.it isthe usual goal of the Ph.D. students at Princeton
B she is doubtful about her future inthe academic world
C.it isdifficult to get a teaching post at major universities
D.shefears that she may not graduate with a Ph. D. degree
47. According to the text, the gap inpercentage between women Ph.D. s and women professors indicates that
A.universities lack competitiveness in the recruitment market
B.a lotof women professors have chosen to leave universities
C.few womenPh. D. s are qualified for the competitive campus
D.universitiesare faced with the problem of female brain drain
48. According to the writer, Summers'comments on women's ability seem to be based on
A. hisown attitude towards women scientists B.hisrecent study on women's weaknesses
C. the latest findings about human brains D.the conventional opinion about talents
49. We can infer that the most seriousproblem of women teachers is
A. theirconflict with male colleagues B. thetrouble in balancing work and life
C.theircooperation with male colleagues D.thedifficulty in their career advancement
50. The best solution to the female braindrain in universities is to
A. create more academic posts for women B. offerhelp to women with young children
C.dismissthose with prejudice against women D. promote more women to leadershippositions
46.D【精析】细节题。根据第一段第二句“Yet they rarely...instead，on their way home from work they usually stop at a supermarket andchoose two portions of meat loaf and a container of ready—to—serve potatoes.”可知，“但是他们很少做饭;取而代之的是，他们通常会在下班回家的路上去超市，挑选两份肉糜卷和一罐速食土豆。”由此可知，穆林夫妇经常在家吃外带食物。故选D。
47.C【精析】细节题。根据第二段第一句“A half-century...the food industryis approaching its long—sought dream of relieving people like the Mullins of unpaid labor in the final，and arguably most profitable，step by which a cow getsturned into meat loaf.”可知，食品产业长久追求的梦想，是向人们提供快餐，使人们不用进行没有报酬的劳动，比如做饭。故选C。
48.C【精析】细节题。根据第二段第二、三句“In-creasingly,tables in America’s kitchens are used not for cutting or peeling but for putting takeout food onto plates.For those who ever bother with plates.”可知，“在美国，厨房里的桌子渐渐不再用来切菜或削皮，而是供需要把外带食品放进盘子里，或是连放盘子里都嫌麻烦的人使用。”由此可知，有些人可能连盘子都不使用。故选C。
49.A 【精析】细节题。根据第三段第二句“Super-market takeout counters，formerly a place where unsold chickens were coated with sauce，increasingly resemble high-end corporate cafeterias.with sushi bars andstir.frystations.”可知，“超市外带柜台从前是放卖不出去的裹着酱汁的鸡肉的地方，现在越来越像高端公司的自助餐厅，那里有寿司吧和小炒站。”故选A。
50.C【精析】细节题。根据最后一段最后一句“And takeout fills another need as well，for the atmosphereof the home.cooked dinner.”可知，“外带食品还满足了人们的另一项需求，就是可以感受在家中烹饪的气氛，”而且前文提到穆林夫妇不做饭，而是选择把外带食品带回家加工然后一起吃饭。故选C。