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2019年考研英语基础试题(13)

中华考试网(www.examw.com)  【 】  [ 2018年9月4日 ]

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  ①Though not biologically related, friends are as “related” as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. ②That is 1 a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 .

  ①The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1,932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. ②The same people were used in both 5 .

  ①While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. ②As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, “Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin.”

  ①The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. ②Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now. ③ 10 , as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. ④There could be many mechanisms working together that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 “functional kinship” of being friends with 14 !

  ①One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. ②Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor.

  ①The findings do not simply explain people’s 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. ②Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. ③The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects.

  1.[A] what [B] why [C] how [D] when

  2.[A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised

  3.[A] for [B] with [C] by [D] on

  4.[A] separated [B] sought [C] compared [D] connected

  5.[A] tests [B] objects [C] samples [D] examples

  6.[A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C] unreliable [D] incredible

  7.[A] visit [B] miss [C] know [D] seek

  8.[A] surpass [B] influence [C] favor [D] resemble

  9.[A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus

  10.[A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps

  11.[A] about [B] to [C] from [D] like

  12.[A] limit [B] observe [C] confuse [D] drive

  13.[A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with

  14.[A] chances [B] responses [C] benefits [D] missions

  15.[A] faster [B] slower [C] later [D] earlier

  16.[A] forecast [B] remember [C] express [D] understand

  17.[A] unpredictable [B] contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive

  18.[A] tendency [B] decision [C] arrangement [D] endeavor

  19.[A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic

  20.[A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  ①King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted “kings don’t abdicate, they die in their sleep.” ②But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. ③So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? ④Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?

  ①The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. ②When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity.

  ①It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs’ continuing popularity as heads of states. ②And so, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). ③But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

  ①Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. ②Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today—embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. ③At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

  ①The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. ②Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). ③Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

  While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

  ①It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. ②The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. ③He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service—as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. ④Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.

  21. According to the first two paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain _______.

  [A] used to enjoy high public support

  [B] was unpopular among European royals

  [C] eased his relationship with his rivals

  [D] ended his reign in embarrassment

  22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly _______.

  [A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

  [B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

  [C] to give voters more public figures to look up to

  [D] due to their everlasting political embodiment

  23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

  [A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth.

  [B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies.

  [C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families.

  [D] The nobility’s adherence to their privileges.

  24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles _______.

  [A] takes a tough line on political issues

  [B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised

  [C] takes republicans as his potential allies

  [D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

  25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

  [A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

  [B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

  [C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

  [D] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

  Text 2

  ①Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? ②The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

  ①California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. ②It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

  ①The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. ②Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justices can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

  ①They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smart phone—a vast storehouse of digital information—is similar to, say, rifling through a suspect’s purse. ②The court has ruled that police don’t violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or pocketbook of an arrestee without a warrant. ③But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. ④A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. ⑤The development of “cloud computing,” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

  ①Americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy. ②But keeping sensitive information on these devices is increasingly a requirement of normal life. ③Citizens still have a right to expect private documents to remain private and protected by the Constitution’s prohibition on unreasonable searches.

  ①As so often is the case, stating that principle doesn’t ease the challenge of line-drawing. ②In many cases, it would not be overly onerous for authorities to obtain a warrant to search through phone contents. ③They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections when facing severe, urgent circumstances, and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while a warrant is pending. ④The court, though, may want to allow room for police to cite situations where they are entitled to more freedom.

  ①But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. ②New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. ③Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a virtual necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

  26. The Supreme Court will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to_______.

  [A] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents

  [B] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant

  [C] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized

  [D]prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones

  27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of_______.

  [A] disapproval

  [B] indifference

  [C] tolerance

  [D]cautiousness

  28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone contents is comparable to_______.

  [A] getting into one’s residence

  [B] handling one’s historical records

  [C] scanning one’s correspondences

  [D] going through one’s wallet

  29. In Paragraphs 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that_______.

  [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed

  [B] the court is giving police less room for action

  [C] citizens’ privacy is not effectively protected

  [D] phones are used to store sensitive information

  30. Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that_______.

  [A] the Constitution should be implemented flexibly

  [B] new technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution

  [C]California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution

  [D]principles of the Constitution should never be altered

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