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中华考试网(www.examw.com)  【 】  [ 2018年6月28日 ]

  As students primp and preen to wow their favorite colleges, there's one characteristic they can't control: their race. That's one reason voters, courts and politicians in six states have outlawed racial preferences in college admissions, while other colleges, fearful of lawsuits, play down their affirmative-action efforts these days. But make no mistake: race still matters. How much depends on the school and the state.

  In Texas, public universities have managed to counteract the effect of racial-preference bans by automatically admitting the top 10% of the graduating class of every high school, including those schools where most students are minorities. But Rice University in Houston, private and highly selective, has had to reinvent its admissions strategies to maintain the school's minority enrollment. Each February, 80 to 90 black, Hispanic and Native American kids visit Rice on an expenses-paid trip. Rice urges counselors from high schools with large minority populations to nominate qualified students. And in the fall, Rice sends two recruiters on the road to find minority applicants; each recruiter visits about 80 predominantly black or Hispanic high schools. Two weeks ago, Rice recruiter Tamara Siler dropped in on Westlake High in Atlanta, where 99% of the 1,296 students are black. Siler went bearing literature and advice, and though only two kids showed up, she said, “I'm pleased I got two.”

  Rice has also resorted to some almost comical end-runs around the spirit of the law. The university used to award a yearly scholarship to a Mexican-American student; now it goes to a student who speaks Spanish really well. Admissions officers no longer know an applicant's race. But a new essay question asks about each student's “background” and “cultural traditions.” When Rice officials read applications, they look for “diverse life experiences” and what they awkwardly call “overcome students,” who have triumphed over hardship.

  Last spring, admissions readers came across a student whose SAT score was lower than 1,200 and who did not rank in the top 10% of her class. Numerically speaking, she lagged far behind most accepted applicants. But her essay and recommendations indicated a strong interest in civil rights and personal experience with racial discrimination. She was admitted. “All the newspapers say affirmative action is done,” says a veteran counselor at a large New York City high school. “But nothing has changed. I have a [minority] kid at Yale with an SAT score in the high 900s.”

  While minority admissions at the University of California system overall have dipped only slightly since a ban on affirmative action took effect in 1998, they have plummeted at the most selective campuses. At Berkeley, for example, the class entering this fall included 608 Chicano students, vs. 1,013 in 1997. In response, the elite schools have moved aggressively to recruit at minority high schools——and even to improve the performance of students who are graduating from them. This year the U.C. system will spend $250 million on outreach, from installing tutors at low-income schools to inviting high school teachers to summer calculus seminars.

  1. Affirmative action is something ___________.

  [A] that guarantees students of different races to be admitted equally

  [B] American citizens fight against because it discriminates minority students

  [C] colleges take to give preference to minority students in college admission

  [D] favored by American colleges yet unpopular with American public

  2. Rice University sent two recruiters to find minority applicants because _________.

  [A] Rice wanted to maintain minority enrollment

  [B] minority students have better school performance

  [C] Rice has a large minority population

  [D] Rice is famous for admitting minority students

  3. The writer mentioned Rice‘s some comic end-runs around the spirit of the law to show that_____________.

  [A] Rice abides by the law strictly

  [B] Rice deals with students in a comic way

  [C] Rice prefers minority students

  [D] Rice has its own ways of dealing with the law

  4. It seems that minority students _________.

  [A] are still benefiting from affirmative action

  [B] have lower SAT scores

  [C] are often admitted by universities because they have unique racial experience

  [D] lag far behind than other students in school performance

  5. The word “plummeted” (Line 2, Paragraph 5) most probably means_________.?

  [A] doubled

  [B] risen

  [C] stayed the same

  [D] decreased

  答案:C A D A D




  primp: v. 梳理(头发),打扮

  preen: v. 把(自己)打扮漂亮

  wow: v. 激起热烈赞扬, 使惊叹, 使佩服

  affirmative-action: 平权措施

  counteract: v. 抵抗;抵制;消除,抵消

  enrollment: n. 登记, 注册, 入学

  counselor: n. 顾问

  nominate: v. 提名, 推荐

  predominantly: adv. 主要地,占优势地

  Hispanic: adj. 西班牙的

  literature: n. 印刷品

  resort: v. 求助, 诉诸, 采取(某种手段等)

  end-run: 迂回

  diverse: adj. 不同的, 变化多的

  SAT: 学术能力测验指代(美国)学术能力测试的一种标志

  numerically: adv. 用数字, 在数字上

  recommendation: n. 推荐信

  discrimination: n. 歧视

  veteran: n. 老手, 富有经验的人

  dip: v. (短时间)降下一点,降低一些

  plummet: v. 骤降,爆跌突然和大幅度地降低

  Chicano: adj. n.奇卡诺人(指墨西哥裔美国人或在美国的讲西班牙语的拉丁美洲人后裔)

  outreach: n. 扩大服务项目;有系统地尝试向一团体的特别部门提供超常规的服务

  calculus: n. 微积分学

  seminar: n. 研究会, 讨论发表会


  That's one reason voters, courts and politicians in six states have outlawed racial preferences in college admissions, while other colleges, fearful of lawsuits, play down their affirmative-action efforts these days.

  主体句式That‘s one reason…

  结构分析:这是一个复杂句,reason后面的成分是一个同位语从句,在这个从句里又包含了一个while引导的状语从句,表示对照。文中比较难的语言表达是play down和affirmative-action.“play down”的意思是“降低,减少”,而“affirmative action”指的是美国大学为了保证少数族裔的受教育机会而采取的照顾政策,称为“平权措施”。



  1. 答案为C,属推理判断题。根据第一段中的上下文,美国六个州制定法律,规定“racial preferences in college admissions”为非法,继而说美国的学校为了免于诉讼就减少了“affirmation action”的努力,可见“affirmation action”应该是指在大学入学方面给与少数民族学生的照顾政策。

  2. 答案为A,属事实细节题。第二段第四行讲述了Rice University不得不重新制定策略“to maintain the school‘s minority enrollment”,下面派招生员到各处招收少数族裔申请者则是实现这一目的的一个方式。可见答案是A.

  3. 答案为D,属推理判断题。文章第二段提到Rice University为了应对新法律不得不重新制定策略来保证学校少数族裔学生入学。接着在第三段中举了三个根法律玩擦边球的例子:把原来给墨西哥裔学生的年度奖学金变成给西班牙语流利的学生(墨西哥裔学生的母语多位西班牙语);虽然不知道申请人的种族,但申请者要回答的论文问题却是“背景”和“文化传统”,而且招生人员看重的是“不同的体验”和“克服困难”的学生(少数族裔学生通过回答这些问题就可以轻易地让招生人员把他们挑出来)。可见Rice大学自有一套对付法律的办法。

  4. 答案为A,属推理判断题。第四段举了两个大学入学考试成绩不高但依然被录取的少数族裔学生的例子,接着引用一位中学顾问的话:“所有的报纸都说平权措施(affirmative action)要过时了,但一切都是老样子。”来说明少数族裔的学生依然从平权措施中受益。

  5. 答案为D,属猜词题。这个词的意思可以从下文中给出的例子猜测出来。文中说:以伯克利为例,今年秋季入学的班级有608名奇卡诺裔学生,而在1997年,这个数字是1013人。可见少数族裔的入学人数是大幅下降了。




  莱斯大学还采取了一些可笑的迂回手段来应对这条法律。 这所大学以前每年都会给一位墨西哥裔美国学生授予年度奖学金;现在的要求则是能够说一口流利的西班牙语。招生官员再也无从知道申请人的种族身份。但一个新的考试题目问及每个学生的“背景”和“文化传统”。当莱斯的官员阅读申请书的时候,他们寻找的是“不同的生活体验”以及被他们笨拙地称为“克困学生”的那些成功克服困难的学生。



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