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2019年考研英语精选练习题(7)

中华考试网(www.examw.com)  【 】  [ 2018年6月24日 ]

  It was a ruling that had consumers seething with anger and many a free trader crying foul. On November 20th the European Court of Justice decided that Tesco, a British supermarket chain, should not be allowed to import jeans made by America s Levi Strauss from outside the European Union and sell them at cut-rate prices without getting permission first from the jeans maker. Ironically, the ruling is based on an EU trademark directive that was designed to protect local, not American, manufacturers from price dumping. The idea is that any brand-owning firm should be allowed to position its goods and segment its markets as it sees fit: Levi s jeans, just like Gucci handbags, must be allowed to be expensive.   Levi Strauss persuaded the court that, by selling its jeans cheaply alongside soap powder and bananas, Tesco was destroying the image and so the value of its brands——which could only lead to less innovation and, in the long run, would reduce consumer choice. Consumer groups and Tesco say that Levi s case is specious. The supermarket argues that it was just arbitraging the price differential between Levi s jeans sold in America and Europe——a service performed a million times a day in financial markets, and one that has led to real benefits for consumers. Tesco has been selling some 15,000 pairs of Levi s jeans a week, for about half the price they command in specialist stores approved by Levi Strauss. Christine Cross, Tesco s head of global non-food sourcing, says the ruling risks “creating a Fortress Europe with a vengeance”。   The debate will rage on, and has implications well beyond casual clothes 。 The question at its heart is not whether brands need to control how they are sold to protect their image, but whether it is the job of the courts to help them do this. Gucci, an Italian clothes label whose image was being destroyed by loose licensing and over-exposure in discount stores, saved itself not by resorting to the courts but by ending contracts with third-party suppliers, controlling its distribution better and opening its own stores. It is now hard to find cut-price Gucci anywhere.   Brand experts argue that Levi Strauss, which has been losing market share to hipper rivals such as Diesel, is no longer strong enough to command premium prices. Left to market forces, so-so brands such as Levi s might well fade away and be replaced by fresher labels. With the courts protecting its prices, Levi Strauss may hang on for longer. But no court can help to make it a great brand again.   1. Which of the following is not true according to Paragraph 1?   [A]Consumers and free traders were very angry.   [B]Only the Levi‘s maker can decide the prices of the jeans.   [C] The ruling has protected Levi‘s from price dumping.   [D] Levi‘s jeans should be sold at a high price .   2. Gucci‘s success shows that _______.   [A]Gucci has successfully saved its own image.   [B] It has changed its fate with its own effort.   [C]Opening its own stores is the key to success.   [D] It should be the court‘s duty to save its image.   3. The word “specious” in the context probably means _______.   [A]responsible for oneself   [B] having too many doubts   [C] not as it seems to be   [D]raising misunderstanding   4. According to the passage, the doomed fate of Levi‘s is caused by such factors except that ________.   [A]the rivals are competitive   [B]it fails to command premium prices   [C]market forces have their own rules   [D]the court fails to give some help   5. The author‘s attitude towards Levi’s prospect seems to be _______.   [A] biased   [B] indifferent   [C] puzzling   [D] objective   答案:BBCDD

  二.

  In general,our society is becoming one of the giant enterprises directed by a bureaucratic management in which man becomes a small we1l-oiled cog in the machinery.The oiling is done with higher wages,well-ventilated factories and piped music,and by psychologists and“human relations”experts;yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless,that he is bored with it.In fact,the blue-collar and the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management.   The worker and employee are anxious not only because they might find themselves out of a job,they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction of interest in life.They live and die without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.   Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious.Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates.They are even more insecure in some respects.They are in a highly competitive race.To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect.When they apply for their first job,they are tested for intelligence as well as for the right mixture of submissiveness and independence.From that moment on they are tested again and again by the psychologists,for whom testing is a big business,and by their superiors,who judge their behavior,sociability,capacity to get along,etc.This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one‘s fellow competitor creates constant anxiety and stress,the very causes of unhappiness and illness.   Am I suggesting that we should return to the pre-industrial mode of production or to nineteenth century“free enterprise”capitalism? Certainly not.Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown.I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities—those of all love and of reason—are the aims of social arrangements.Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end,and should be prevented from ruling man.   1.By“a well-oiled cog in the machinery”the author intends to render the idea that man is____.   [A] a necessary part of the society though each individual‘s function is negligible   [B] an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society,though functioning smoothly   [C] working in complete harmony with the rest of the society   [D] a humble component of the society,especially when working smoothly   2.The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that____.   [A] they are deprived of their individuality and independence   [B] they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life   [C] they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence   [D] they are likely to lose their jobs   3.From the passage we can infer that real happiness of life belongs to those____.   [A]who are at the bottom of the society   [B]who are higher up in their social status   [C]who could keep far away from this competitive world   [D]who prove better than their fellow competitors   4.To solve the present social problems the author suggests that we should____.   [A] resort to the production mode of our ancestors   [B] offer higher wages to the workers and employees   [C] enable man to fully develop his potentialities   [D] take the fundamental realities for granted   5.The author s attitude towards industrialism might best be summarized as one of____.   [A]approval [B]tolerance   [C]suspicion [D]dissatisfaction

  核心词汇   ventilate Vt使通风 bore v.使厌烦 puppet,n.傀儡 tunen.曲调,调子   acquire vt获得,学到 existence n.存在 mode n.方式,模式   难句点津   1.In general,our society is becoming one of the giant enterprises directed bv a bureaucratic lmanagement in which man becomes a small well—oiled cog in the machinery. [点津]句子的主干是Our societyisbecoming oneofthe giant enterprises,directedby之后的内容是修饰enterprises的定语,which引导一个定语从句修饰 enterprises   2.From that moment on they are tested again and again by the psychologists,for whom testing is a big business,and by their superiors,who judge their behavior,sociability,capacity to get along.etc. ‘   [点津]句子的主干是They are tested by the psychologists and by their superiors,其中psychologists 和superiors都带有自己的定语从句。

  总的来说,我们的社会变成了一个官僚化管理的大型企业,其中的所有人都成了这台机器中润滑良好的小齿轮。高工资、通风良好的厂房和有线广播的音乐用于润滑,心理学家和“人际关系”专家也用于润滑。然而所有这些润滑油都没能改变这一事实,即人类已经变得无能为力并厌倦了“润滑油”。实际上,蓝领和白领阶层都变成了经济傀儡,随着自动化机器和官僚化管理的步调而起舞。   工人和雇员的焦虑不仅是由于他们可能会失业,还由于他们无法获得生活的真正乐趣。终其一生,他们从未作为情感和理智上独立的、富有创造性的人来面对生存的本质。那些处于社会高层的人同样焦虑,他们的生活和那些社会地位低于他们的人同样空洞,甚至在某些方面更缺乏安全感。他们处在异常激烈的竞争中。得到晋升还是落后于人,不是薪水的问题,更多的是自尊的问题。他们在申请第一份工作时,就接受了智商测试,以及对是否兼有适当的服从和独立的素质所进行的考查。从那以后,他们不断地被心理学家测试,对那些心理学家来说测试是一笔大生意;他们还不断接受上司的测试,以评判他们的行为、社交能力、与人相处的能力等。他们需要不断地证明自己和同事一样优秀,或比同事更优秀,这造成了持久的忧虑和压力,而忧虑和压力是苦恼和疾病的根源。 ‘   我是在建议我们应该回到前工业社会的生产模式或19世纪“自由企业”的资本主义吗?当然不是。回到逝去的时代永远不能解决问题。我建议将社会体系由官僚化管理的工业制度转换到人道主义的工业制度,前者以最大化的生产和消费为最终目的,而后者的社会目的则是人及其潜能的全面发展。生产和消费只是实现该目的的手段,而不能让它们统治人类。   答案解析   1.B 推断题。文章第一段指出,人成了社会大机器中微小的、润滑良好的齿轮,高工资和通风良好的厂房便是润滑油,但事实上人是无能为力的,蓝领工人和白领阶层都是毫无自主权的经济傀儡。由此推断,虽然工作生活条件不错,但人在社会中却是无足轻重的,故选B.   2.A 推断题。文章第二段点明了工人和雇员忧虑的原因,分析上下文可知,其真正原因是情感与理智上独立的、富有创造性的个人生存状态被忽视,故选A.选项B、D只是部分原因,不全面;C项与文章内容相悖。   3.C 推断题。由文章可知,社会底层者、社会上层者和竞争中的胜利者都无法脱离充满竞争的生存环境,因而都生活在各种各样的忧虑与压力之中,所以都无幸福可言,只有远离这个充满竞争的社会的人才可能获得幸福,故选C.   4.C 推断题。文章最后一段给出了解决现有社会问题的建议,即改革现有的工业制度,在新的工业制度中,人及其自身潜能的全面发展将是社会的目标,故选C.A项是作者在最后一段中表明不同意的观点,应排除;B项是维持工业制度正常运转的手段之一,而不是解决社会问题的建议,应排除;D项与原文不符,也应排除。   5.D 态度题。文章最后一段提到,作者建议将社会体系由官僚政治管理的工业制度过渡到人道主义的工业制度,由此可知,作者对现有工业制度的态度是不满的,故选D.A、B、C都与原文不符。

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