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GRE阅读题目解析:民族国家词的误用

中华考试网   2017-10-05   【

GRE阅读题目解析:民族国家词的误用

  P8

  According to Hill and Spicer, the term “nation-state” is a misnomer, since the ideal model of a monolingual, culturally homogeneous state has never existed, not even among Europeans, who invented the nation-state concept and introduced it to the rest of the world. Modern European states, they argue, emerged after the Renaissance through the rise of nations (i.e., specific ethnic groups) to positions of political and economic dominance over a number of other ethnic groups within the bounded political territories. The term “nation-state”, Hill and Spicer argue, obscures the internal cultural and linguistic diversity of states that could more accurately be called “conquest states.” The resurgence of multiple ethnic groups within a single state, Hill says, is not “potentially threating to the sovereign jurisdiction of the state,” as Urban and Sherzer suggest; rather, the assertion of cultural differences threatens to reveal ethnocentric beliefs and practices upon which conquest states were historically founded and thus to open up the possibility for a “nations-state” in which conquered ethnic groups enjoy equal rights with the conquering ethnic group but do not face the threat of persecution or cultural assimilation into the dominant ethnic group.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. discuss issues relating to a form of political organization by raising doubts about the terminology used to refer to it

  B. trace changes in a form of political organization by examining the evolution of the terminology used to refer to

  C. justify the continued use of an established term for an evolving form of political organization

  D. question the accuracy of a new term for a form of political organization

  E. compare two terms for a form of political organization

  2. The author of the passage quotes Urban and Sherzer most probably in order to

  A. introduce a discussion of the legal ramifications of expanding the nation-state concept

  B. summarize a claim about one possible effect of asserting cultural differences within a state

  C. shift the focus of discussion from internal threats that states face to external threats that they face

  D. point out similarities between the threats to states seen by Urban and Sherzer and those seen by Hill

  E. describe one way an ethnocentric practice has affected attempts to assert cultural differences within a state

  3. According to the passage, Hill and Spicer define nations as which of the following?

  A. coalitions of distinct ethnic groups with similar concerns

  B. Distinct ethnic groups

  C. Culturally homogeneous states

  D. Linguistically diverse states

  E. Territorially bounded states

  P8

  1

  According to Hill and Spicer, the term “nation-state” is a misnomer, since the ideal model of a monolingual, culturally homogeneous state has never existed, not even among Europeans, who invented the nation-state concept and introduced it to the rest of the world.

  根据 H 和 S 所述,“ 民族国家 ” 这个词被误用了,因为从来不存在说同一种语言,文化上同质的理想国家范例,甚至发明了民族国家这个概念,又把它推广到全球的欧洲,也找不出这种例子。

  2

  Modern European states, they argue, emerged after the Renaissance through the rise of nations (i.e., specific ethnic groups) to positions of political and economic dominance over a number of other ethnic groups within the bounded political territories.

  他们认为,现代欧洲国家出现于文艺复兴之后,在有一定边界的政治地区内,一些民族(即族群)崛起并超过其他族群,获得政治与经济的主导地位。

  3

  The term “nation-state”, Hill and Spicer argue, obscures the internal cultural and linguistic diversity of states that could more accurately be called “conquest states.”

  H 和 S 论证,“ 民族国家 ” 这个词,掩盖了国家内部文化和语言的差异,这些国家更准确地,应该叫 “ 征服国家 ”。

  4

  The resurgence of multiple ethnic groups within a single state, Hill says, is not “potentially threating to the sovereign jurisdiction of the state,” as Urban and Sherzer suggest ; rather, the assertion of cultural differences threatens to reveal ethnocentric beliefs and practices upon which conquest states were historically founded and thus to open up the possibility for a “nations-state” in which conquered ethnic groups enjoy equal rights with the conquering ethnic group but do not face the threat of persecution or cultural assimilation into the dominant ethnic group.

  H 说,单个国家内的多族群复兴,并不像 U 和 SH 认为的那样,“ 潜在地威胁国家统治的司法权 ”;相反,坚持文化差异意味着曝光那些,征服国家建立之初所依赖的种族优越理念和种族优先政策,因此也意味着开启新的 “ 多民族国家 ” 的可能,在多民族国家中,被征服的族群享有和征服者同等的权利,却无须面对被迫害或被强势族群文化同化的威胁。

  (长难句。

  整句可以粗略地化简为,(曾经弱势的)多民族复兴不像 U 和 SH 说的,是坏事;相反是好事,因为它有助于清算历史,进入共同发展的新纪元。)

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. discuss issues relating to a form of political organization by raising doubts about the terminology used to refer to it

  B. trace changes in a form of political organization by examining the evolution of the terminology used to refer to

  C. justify the continued use of an established term for an evolving form of political organization

  D. question the accuracy of a new term for a form of political organization

  E. compare two terms for a form of political organization

  选 A

  通过对学术用语(民族国家)提出质疑,来讨论与某种政治组织形式相关的问题。

  2. The author of the passage quotes Urban and Sherzer most probably in order to

  A. introduce a discussion of the legal ramifications of expanding the nation-state concept

  B. summarize a claim about one possible effect of asserting cultural differences within a state

  C. shift the focus of discussion from internal threats that states face to external threats that they face

  D. point out similarities between the threats to states seen by Urban and Sherzer and those seen by Hill

  E. describe one way an ethnocentric practice has affected attempts to assert cultural differences within a state

  选 B

  注意问法,问的是作者引用 U 和 SH 的话,目的是什么,没问你作者或 H 和 S 对问题的观点,也没问作者或 H 和 S 对 U 和 SH 的态度。

  “potentially threating to the sovereign jurisdiction of the state,”

  作者引用这句话,纯是为了总结对方的观点。

  A 尽管文中出现了 sovereign jurisdiction 字样,但作者没想讨论扩展民族国家这个概念所带来的法律后果。

  C 没有 external threats 的事,也看不住作者 shift focus 了。

  D 两种观点不同,没有什么 similarities 。

  E 文中没具体说过种族中心政策的影响。

  3. According to the passage, Hill and Spicer define nations as which of the following?

  A. coalitions of distinct ethnic groups with similar concerns

  B. Distinct ethnic groups

  C. Culturally homogeneous states

  D. Linguistically diverse states

  E. Territorially bounded states

  选 B

  问我们 H 和 S 怎么定义国家,其实句 1 我们就看到 H 和 S 的态度了,他们认为不存在所谓的 “ 民族国家 ” 即单民族国家,所以选 B,所有国家都是不同族群的集合。

  除 B 以外,其他选项都有天然缺陷。

  A 错在 similar concerns 。

  C 不可能 homogeneous 。

  D 语言不同,的确是国家的一个特点,但不是 H 和 S 认定的决定因素。

  E 有国界即称为国家。同上,这是国家的特点,但不是决定因素

 

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