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2017年学位英语语法备考资料(5)

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  在现代英语中,人们可以通过词汇手段、语法手段来进行强调。

  (1)词汇手段

  The last thing that a lazy student wishes is examination. 懒学生最不愿意的事情就是考试。

  At that very moment the policemen came. 就在那时警察到了。

  Where in the world did you go just now? 你刚才究竟去哪儿了?

  What on earth are you doing? 你究竟在干什么?

  She's not in the least angry with me. 她一点也不生我的气。

  (2)语法手段

  1. 用It is/was…that/who…句型表示强调。

  被强调的部分(通常是句子的主语、状语、宾语或宾语补足语)放在is/was的后面,被强调的是人,则后面可用who,whom等代替。例如:

  He met an old friend in the park yesterday. 他昨天在公园碰见一个老朋友。

  上述句子可以通过强调句型对除谓语以外的不同成分进行强调。如:

  It was he who/that met an old friend in the park yesterday.(强调主语)

  It was an old friend that/who he met in the park yesterday.(强调宾语)

  It was in the park that he met an old friend yesterday.(强调地点状语)

  It was yesterday that he met an old friend in he park.(强调时间状语)

  2. 用助动词do,does或did来强调谓语动词。例如:

  Do come early. 一定早点来。

  He did send you a letter last week. 他上周确实给你寄过一封信。

  We're pleased that she does intend to come. 她的确打算来,我们非常高兴。

  3.用主语从句+BE+被强调部分,主语从句常用what引导。例如:

  John wants a ball. 约翰想要一个球。

  What John wants is a ball. 约翰想要的是一个,球。

  Mary gives piano lessons every day. 玛丽每天教钢琴。

  What Mary does every day is (to) give piano lessons. 玛丽每天干的工作是教钢琴。

  4.人们还可以通过改变句子结构或颠倒正常语气的手段来进行强调。例如:

  Never will China be the first to use nuclear weapons. 中国决不会第一个使用核武器。

  Only in this way can we catch up with and surpass the world's advanced level of science and technology. 只有这样,我们才能赶上并超过世界先进科技水平。

  难点释疑:

  1. It was at 7 o'clock that he came back. 他是7点钟回来的。(强调句,强调at 7 o'clock)

  2. It is/was…that…强调句型的被强调部分如果是原因状语从句,只能由because引导,不能由since、as或why引导。例如:

  It was because the water had risen that they could not cross the river. 正是由于水涨了,他们没有渡过河去。(不用because或since)

  3.注意"not …… until"强调句型的变化。比较下列三个句子:

  She didn't remember her appointment with the doctor until she had arrived home.

  It was not until she had arrived home that she remembered her appointment with the doctor.

  Not until she had arrived home did she remember her appointment with the doctor.

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