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2017年学位英语语法备考资料(1)

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  1、can

  1)表能力时意味着凭体力或脑力或技术等可以无甚阻力地去做某事。

  I can climb this pole. 我能爬这根杆子。

  He is only four, but he can read. 他只有4岁,但已认得字了。

  2)表示推测语气的用法时,can只能用于疑问句和否定句,用于否定句的时候必须要有充分的理由说明。如:

  Can he be at home? No, he can't be at home, because I met him in the street just 5 minutes ago.

  他可能在家吗?不,他不可能在家,因为我5分钟之前才在街上遇到他。

  2、may (might)

  1)表示请求、可以、允许。

  You may drive the tractor. 你可以开那台拖拉机。

  2)表建议(可和as well 连用)

  You may (might) as well stay where you are.

  你还是原地待着好。(may as well 有“还是……的好”的含义)

  3)表可能(事实上)。可以指过去时间,也可以指现在时间,但语气更加不肯定,只能用于肯定句和否定句。

  He may be at home. 他可能在家。

  She may not know about it. 她可能不知道这件事。

  He was afraid they might not agree with him. 他担心他们可能不同意他的意见。

  They might be having a meeting, but I'm not sure. 他们有可能在开会,不过我不肯定。

  3、must

  1)表示必须、必要

  We must do everything step by step. 我们必须按部就班地做一切事情。

  2)must 的否定式有两个:当回答由must引起的问题时,否定答复要用needn't或don't have to表示“不必”、“无须”、“用不着”

  3)表示推测语气的用法,意为“准是、一定”等,只用于肯定句,并且要有充足的理由说明。

  He must have passed the exam, because he looked so happy.

  他一定通过考试了,因为他看起来如此的开心。

  4. have to

  have to的含义与must是很接近的,只是have to 比较强调客观需要,must着重说明主观看法。

  I must clean the room.(主观想法)I have to clean the room.(客观需要)

  另外,have to 能用于更多时态:

  We had to be there at ten. 我们得在十点钟到那里。

  We will have to reconsider the whole thing. 这一切我们将不得不重新加以考虑。

  have to 的否定式:don't have to do 表示“不必做……”之意。

  5、would

  1)表意愿。

  They would not let him in because he was poorly dressed. 他们不让他进去因为他衣着破旧。

  I said I would do anything for you. 我说过我愿意为你做任何事。

  2)表过去反复发生的动作或过去的一种倾向。

  Every time she was in trouble, she would go to him for help.

  她每遇到麻烦都会向她求助。他告诉我盒子打不开了。

  6、ought to

  表义务,意为“应该”(因责任、义务等该做),口气比should稍重。

  You are his father. You ought to take care of him. 你是他父亲,应当管他。

  You oughtn't to smoke so much. 你不应该抽这么多烟。

  7、used to

  表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在不复发生或存在。疑问式和否定式有两种。

  He used to live in the countryside, but now he lives in the city.他过去住在乡下,现在住在城里。

  There used to be a building at the street corner, but it has been pulled down.

  街道拐角处过去有座楼房,现在拆了。

  I usedn't (didn't use) to smoke. 我过去不抽烟。

  Used you (Did you use) to go to school on foot? 你过去常步行去学校吗?

  难点释疑:

  (一)need和dare的用法比较

  need和dare既可用作情态动词,也可用作实义动词。用作情态动词时,主要用于否定句和疑问句。用作实义动词时,可用于各种句式。

  1.用作情态动词

  You needn't telephone him now. 你现在不必打电话给他。

  I don't think you need worry. 我想你不必发愁。

  She dare not go out alone at night. 她晚上不敢一个人出去。

  Not one of them dared mention this. 他们谁也不敢提这件事。

  2.用作实义动词

  You don't need to do it yourself. 你不必亲自做这件事。

  We need to tell them the news. 我们需要把这消息告诉他们。

  The table needs painting (to be painted). 桌子需要油漆一下。

  We should dare to give our own opinion. 我们要敢于提出自己的观点。

  He did not dare (to) look up. 他不敢抬头看。

  (二)情态动词后跟完成式和进行时的用法

  1.情态动词后跟完成式,表“应当已经……”,“想必已经……”,“本来可以……”等意。

  I should have finished the work earlier. 我应当早一点完成这项工作的。

  He isn't here. He must have missed the train. 他还未到,一定是没赶上火车。

  Where can (could) he have gone? 他能到那里去了呢?

  You may (might) have read about it. 你可能在报上已经读到这件事了。

  You could (might) have been more careful. 你本来可以更细心的。

  He needn't have worried about it. 他本不必为此事担心。

  There was a lot of fun at yesterday‘s party. You ought to have come, but why didn't you?

  昨天的聚会非常有意思。你本应该来,为何不来呢?

  2. 情态动词后跟进行时,表示“想必正在……”,“可能正在……”,“应当正在”等意。

  It‘s twelve o’clock. They must be having lunch. 现在是十二点。他们一定正在吃饭。

  They may be discussing this problem now. 他们可能正在论讨这个问题。

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