历年四级考试中的“How I Overcome Difficulties in Learning English”、“My Ideal Job”以及图表作文的第一段都属于说明文的范畴，如，2002年6月的根据坐标图写题为“Students Use of Computers”的作文。
A Famous Clock
When you visit London, one of the first things you will see is Big Ben, the famous clock which can be heard all over the world on the B.B.C. If the Houses of Parliament had not been burned down in 1834, the great clock would never have been erected. Big Ben takes its name from Sir Benjamin Hall who was responsible for the making of the clock when the new Houses of Parliament were being built. It is not only of immense size, but is extremely accurate as well. Officials from Greenwich Observatory have the clock checked twice a day. On the B.B.C. you can hear the clock when it is actually striking because microphones are connected to the clock tower. Big Ben has rarely gone wrong. Once, however, it failed to give the correct time. A painter who had been working on the tower hung a pot of paint on one of the hands and slowed it down!
Everyone has goals. Many people do not reach their goals for lack of planning. These three sets of goals should be developed: lifetime, intermediate and short term.
Lifetime goals should be written out. These goals should be clear and reasonable. For instance, the goal to win a research prize is clear and measurable. Other lifetime goals might include publishing a certain number of influential books or articles, earning a departmental chairmanship at a major university, successfully competing for a grant from the National Science Foundation or securing a consultantship with a big corporation.
Intermediate goals relate to outcomes during the next few years. For the beginning doctoral student, intermediate goals may include completion of course work and preparation of a doctoral research proposal. Like lifetime goals, these are measurable and clearly stated.
Short-term goals involve outcomes expected during the next 12 months. These goals are more performance oriented, and they help with achievement of intermediate goals. Examples of short-term goals are earning an A in a course, learning how to program a computer or performing an experiment.
① … is a/the … of … which/that …② … relate to/involve/refer to …
(1)Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols which is used for human communication. 语言是人类用来交际的任意性的语音符号体系。
(2)Intermediate goals relate to outcomes during the next few years.
(3)Short-term goals involve outcomes expected during the next 12 months.
请看上述范文第二段：“For instance”引出“lifetime goals”的实例，如，赢得研究奖金、出版有影响书或文章、获得大学的系主任职位、获得国家自然科学基金及大公司稳定的顾问职位。
(1)Lifetime goals should be written out.
(2)Like lifetime goals, these are measurable and clearly stated.
(3)These goals are more performance oriented, and they help with achievement of intermediate goals.
(1)Nearly half of all Americans over age 20 wear a bridge or denture，and more than 20 percent have complete upper and lower denture. By age 50, one out of every two persons has gum disease.
(2)And it seems sensible to wait. One quarter of all marriages between people under twenty-one end in divorce. In Britain in 1972, there were 124,248 divorces.
(1)The Layout of a Hospital
Direction: You are asked to write a composition about “The Layout Of a Hospital”. Locate some important departments in the hospital based on the picture and information given below. Your compositions should be no less than 100 words.
1)the Emergency Department
2)the Out-patient Department
3)the Surgery Department
6)the Eye, Ear, and Throat Department
7)the Dental Department
9)the X-ray Department
10)the Administrative Building
Near the gate, on the west side of the road is the Emergency Department. Opposite the Emergency Department across the Main Road is the Out-patient Department. The building to the southwest of the lake is the Dispensary, which faces the Surgery Department lying on the other side of the road. Along the west wall, from south to north, stand three buildings: the Physician Department, the Eye, Ear, and Throat Department, and the Dental Department. The Laboratory is to the northwest of the round about, and beside the Laboratory, the X-ray Department is located on the same side of the road.
A winding road by the lake leads to the Ward. Near the end of the main road, the Administrative Building is situated on the east side. The hospital is nicely and conveniently laid out.
1. How to Lose Weight
How to Lose Weight
A beautiful and healthy figure is everyone’s dream. However, not everyone can easily fulfill this dream. Overweight people often have to find precise ways to lose weight.
For normal healthy people, weight is gained by taking in more calories than the body needs. Therefore, if you want to lose weight, you either have to eat fewer calories or find ways to use up more calories you take in. Dieting is probably the most popular way of losing weight, because when on a diet, you are taking fewer calories.
However, the body needs many elements in order to stay healthy, and “fad” or starvation diets are bad because they are not nutritiously balanced. A better way of dieting is to keep track of everything you eat, either by your own careful choices or by buying, for a week at a time, the packaged meals sold by some diet companies. If you do not normally exercise, you should also begin sensible exercises for your age and lifestyle to help your body use up surplus calories.
In short, a combined effort of reducing the calories you eat and using up more calories than usual through exercises should help you shed off part of your body.