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2018年大学英语四级考试语法模拟题:非谓语动词

中华考试网   2018-07-05   【

2018年大学英语四级考试语法模拟题:非谓语动词

  非谓语动词又称作是非限定动词,是我们语法学习的重点。非谓语动词,顾名思义,是指在句中不能充当谓语的一种动词形式,它有动词不定式、动名词和分词。下面我们将分别予以分析和讲解。

  一)动词不定式

  动词不定式在词性上具有名词、形容词和副词的功能,名词可作主语、宾语和表语,形容词可作定语、表语和宾补,而副词则可以作状语,由此推出,动词不定式也可以作主语、宾语、表语、宾补、定语和状语。下面对不定式在句中作宾语、补语、定语等给予讲解。

  经典考题

  1. If you promise angry with me, I’ll tell you what I broke.

  A) get not B) not get C) not to get D) not getting

  4. He has no choice but to see him

  A) go B) went C) going D) to go

  考点分析

  动词不定式作宾语时涉及以下考点:

  1)在及物动词begin, choose, continue, decide, expect, fail, forget, happen, hate, help, hope, intend, like, love, manage, mean, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, promise, refuse, remember, try, want, wish 等后面常用不定式作宾语。这类动词无规律性,需靠强记和平时的积累才能掌握。(见考题1)

  2)动词不定式可作but(除……之外),except(除……之外), save(除……之外)的宾语,但当but, except, save 前有do的某种形式时(包括did , does, done),不定式符号to必须省略,如:He does nothing but wait. 反之,如果无do 的某种形式,to 则不能省略,如:There is no choice but to wait. 另外,在词组can not but (只好),can not help but (不得不),do nothing but (只有,不得不)后,接不带to的不定式。(参见考题2)

  答案:1. C 2.D

  经典考题

  1. The bank is reported in the local newspaper in broad daylight yesterday.

  A) robbed B) to have been robbed

  C) being robbed D) having been robbed

  考点分析

  动词不定式作宾补、主补涉及到以下两个考点:

  1)有些动词后要求用不定式作宾补,如:allow, advise, ask, choose, enable, expect, fail, have, hear, order, tell, think, wish 等。例如:Harry invited me to come to his party.常见的题型是考察动词不定式作主补的情况。如果把动词不定式作宾补的句中的谓语由主动语态变为被动语态,则作宾补的动词不定式‘就成了主语的补足语。如上述的例子便由Harry invited me to come to his party.变成了I was invited (by Harry) to come to his party. 在此类情形中,考题主要集中了当谓语动词为believe, report, say, suppose 等时,其后作主补的动词不定式用完成时表示动作的完成或提前。如:Mrs., Brown is supposed to have left for Italy last week.

  2) 在consider, prove, think, know, feel, suppose, find等动词之后也跟“宾语+to be/to have”的形式,对此应加以注意。如:We all know him to be dead. (我们都以为他死了。)

  答案:1. B

  经典考题

  1. She’s always the first guest and the last .

  A) to arrive … to leave B) arriving …leaving

  C) arrived…left D) being arrived… being left

  考点分析

  动词不定式作定语涉及两个考点:

  1)动词不定式可作定语,如:Have you any other question to ask? 注意:当被不定式修饰的名词与后面的不定式有动宾关系(即逻辑宾语),该不定式中的动词又是不及物动词时,不定式结尾表示动宾关系的介词不要丢掉,如:I haven’t got a chair to sit on.

  2) 由only, last, next 序数词或形容词最高级修饰的名词常用不定式作定语。另外,有些名词后固定要求用不定式作定语,像ability , right, effort 等,如:Energy is the ability to do work.

  答案:1.A

  二)动名词

  动名词在性质上比较单一,只具有名词的功能,因此只能作主语、表语和宾语。下面以3个小题给予阐述。

  经典考题

  1. work means moving a body through a distance by a force.

  A) Did B) Done C) Doing D) Being done

  考点分析

  动名词可以作主语,如:Reading newspapers can increase our knowledge. 当动名词短语作主语时,有时可以用形式主语it 代替,it 放在句首而把实际主语放在句末,但大多限于像“It is no use …”, “Is it no good…”, “It is useless… ”等一些习惯用法中。如:It is no use doing that work.另外,动名词还可以用在There is no …结构中作主语。例如:There is no use calling him at this hour.

  答案:1. C

  经典考题

  2. That young man still denies the fire behind the store.

  A) to start B) having started C) start D) to have started

  3. I have no objection your story again.

  A) to hear B) to hearing C) to having heard D) to have heard

  考点分析

  对动名词作宾语要注意以下考点:

  1)在某些动词后要求用动名词作宾语,不能用不定式,常见的这类动词有:admit, advise, appreciate, avoid, consider, deny ,enjoy, escape, finish, imagine, keep, mind, miss, permit , risk, suggest等。

  2)动名词也可以作介词宾语。如:He went away without telling me .同时,要注意后面跟介词的短语,动词后要求用动名词作宾语,常见的这类动词有:approve of, be capable of, be objected to ,be used to , be accustomed to ,give up, keep on ,look forward to , put off, can’t help等。

  答案:1. B 2.B

  三)动词不定式与动名词比较

  由于动词不定式也具有名词的性质和功能,因此,其用法在三个位置上与动名词发生了重合,即主语位置、宾语位置和表语位置,故有必在对此予以比较。两者在表语位置上的用法基本相同,且无考点,因此,我们将着重讲解两者在宾语和主语位置上的区别。

  (一)宾语位置上的区别

  1)有些动词要求跟动名词作宾语,有些动词要求跟不定式作宾语(参见动词不定式和动名词作宾语的情况)。

  2)有些动词后既可跟动名词,又可跟不定式,但意义不同。

  经典考题

  1. If I had remembered the window, the thief would not have got in .

  A) to close B) closing C) to have closed D) having closed

  考题主释

  ① remember 后既可以跟不定式,又可以跟动名词,前者意思是:记住做某事(还没做),后者的意思为:记得做了某事(做过了)。根据题意,窗户未关,因此小偷就进来了,故A)正确。相似的词还有forget ,regret。

  (二)主语位置上的区别

  经典才考题

  newspapers can increase our knowledge.

  A) Reading B) To read C) To be read D) Read

  考点分析

  不定式和动名词都可以放到主语的位置,意思相差不大,因此,使许多考生感到难以下手。做此类题目,关键是掌握我们在属性篇中讲的各自的深层性质,即不定式一般表示一次性、具体性、目的性,而动名词则表习惯性、一般性、过去性。就此考题而言,读报能获得知识是一种习惯性的长期过程,因此,用不定式便不合适,因为不定式只表示一次特定的动作。

  答案:1. A

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