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2018年大学英语四级考试语法模拟题:从句

中华考试网   2018-07-05   【

2018年大学英语四级考试语法模拟题:从句

  从句

  从句在英语语言使用中相当频繁,它是英语主从复合句的必要成分,与主句结合在一起称为主从复合句。复合句中的从句共有三种:名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句。各种从句依靠不同的关联词与主句连接,这些关键词起着桥梁的作用,也是掌握从句的关键。

  一)名词性从句

  1.之所以称之为名词性从句,首先是因为其本质上具有名词的性质。名词可以充当主语、宾语、表语和同位语,因此,名词性从句可以分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

  2.名词性从句靠关联词与主句连接起来,关联词充当着桥梁的作用,其中有独木桥,即只充当连接作用的关联词,也有双道桥,即充当连接作用,并有其意义的连接词,还有三道桥,即起连接作用,并在句中充当成份,还有其意义的连接词。掌握关联词,也便掌握了从句的关键。下面以2个小题给予说明。

  经典考题

  1. In some countries, is called “ equality ”does not really mean equal rights for all people.

  A) which B) what C) that D) one

  考点分析

  主语从句的连接词总共有四类:

  (1) 由that 引导的主语从句。That 在从句中不充当任何成分,本身也无实际意义,只起连接作用,可形象地比喻为“独木桥”。如: That he will come is certain.

  (2) 由 whether 引导的主语从句。whehter在从句中充当连接词,并且有其意义,故称之为“双道桥”。注意,从句中通常有or 或or not, 也是使用连接词whether的标志。

  (3) 由连接代词who(ever), whom, whose, what 和which 引导的主语从句。连接代词在句中可充当句子成份,也有其意义,当然也有连接的作用,故称之为“三道桥”。如:What you need is practice.

  (4)由连接副词when, where和why 引导的主语从句。连接副词与连接代词一样,也具有三重作用,其充当的成份为状语。如H ow the prisoner escaped is a mystery.

  注意: 有时为了求得句子的平衡,通常利用it 作形式主语而将主语从句后置。如:It’s necessary that he return the book at once.

  考题注释

  在第1小题中从句缺少主语,因此应选一连接代词充当从句的主语。从意义上讲,which意为“哪个(些)”,what 意为“所……的”。所以答案是 B

  经典考题

  2. There are signs restaurants are becoming more popular with families.

  A) that B) which C) in which D) whose

  考点分析

  1)英语中某些名词如idea、fact、news、hope、belief等后可用同位语从句,其连接词的范围和应用方法与主语从句相同,但在测试中,主要考以that引导的同位语从句。

  2)用作同位语连词的that与用作定语从句关系词的that有三点区别:

  (1)同位语从句中的that只起连接作用,不能充当成分,而定语从句中的that可作从句成分。(2)同位语从句修饰的名词是相等关系,是对前面名词的解释和说明;而定语从句与所修饰的中心词之间是修饰与被修饰关系。(3)同位语从句前的名词是特定的,而定语从句所修饰的词是不特定的。

  答案是A

  二)状语从句

  状语从句是指在主句中作状语的主谓结构。状语从句根据其在主句中的句法作用可分为时间、地点、方式、原因、目的、结果、让步、比较和条件等九种状语从句。掌握状语从句的关键是熟悉能连接状语从句的从属连词的用法。下面以原因、让步、条件状语从句为例子来说明

  经典考题

  1. Although many people view conflict as bad, conflict is sometimes useful it forces people to test the relative merits of their attitudes and behaviors.

  A) by which B) to which C) in that D) so that

  2. you are leaving tomorrow, we can have dinner together tonight.

  A) For B) Since C) Before D) While

  考点分析

  能连接原因状语从句的从属连词有:because, as , since, for, in that (因为),now that (既然)等。考点有:

  1)in that, now that 引导的状态语从句,这是四级测试的一个重点。

  2)as, because ,for 和since 引导原因状语从句的区别。笔者认为,应从两个层次对之进行区分:一是从句与主句的位置,二是从句与主句的关系。As 引导的从句常位于主句之前,它说明的原因只是附带性的;because 引导的从句一般放在主句之后,它用来表示直接原因;for引导的从句只能放到主句的后面,它侧重于对主句的解释和说明;since引导的从句常放在主句的前面,特别是表示“既然”时,它表示的原因通常是稍加分析后推断出来的。

  答案:1. C 2.B

  经典考题

  1. difficulties we may come across, we’ll help one another to overcome them.

  A) However B) Whenever C) Wherever D) Whatever

  考点分析

  能引导让步状语从句的连接词有:although, as , ( even)though, even if ,ever 型(如 whatever 等),whether …of ( not )(不管、不论),while (尽管)等。如Whatever you say, I will not change my mind. whatever 后面接的是名词,而however 后面接的是副词和形容词。

  答案:1. D

  经典考题

  1. We’ll visit Europe next year we have enough money.

  A) provided B) unless C) until D) lest

  考点分析

  条件状语从句一般由if、unless、as long as (只有)、supposing(如果)、provided(如果,假设)、on condition that (假设)等词引导,如:We can not study English well unless we practice it from time to time.

  答案:1. A

  三)定语从句

  1. 定语从句又被称为形容词性从句或关系从句,其实质是修饰名词或代词的主谓结构,被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。

  2. 连接名词(代词)和定语从句的关联词称为关系词,有关系代词和关系副词,掌握定语从句的关键在于掌握关系词的用法。

  3. 定语从句分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句是主句意思不可缺少的部分,如果把它去掉,主句的意思便难以完整。非限定性定语从句只对作修饰的词作进一步的说明,它是一种插入语,旁白或注释,如果把它删去,主句的意思仍然完整。非限定性定语从句与先行用逗号隔开。

  例如:You may select the one which is most to your taste. (限定性定语从句)

  That man, whose work is important, has been a teacher.(非限定性定语从句)

  (一)由关系代词引导的定语从句

  经典考题

  1. The few points the president stressed in his report are very important.

  A) which B) who C) as D) where

  2. All is a continuous supply of the basic necessities of life.

  A) what is needed B) for our needs

  C) the thing needed D) that is needed

  考点分析

  1)能引导定语从句的关系代词有:who (whom ,whose )、which 和 that。其中,who ( whom, whose )指人,which 指物,that 既指人,也指物,例如:

  The woman who (that )is speaking at the meeting is a famous writer.

  The train which (that ) has just left is a new one.

  2) 注意关系代词that 的使用:当① 先行词前有限定词(all、any 、every、no等)、序数词、形容词最高级时;② 先行词本身是限定词或不定代词(nothing、 everything、anything等)时;③ 先行词是既指人又指物的并列名词时,必须使用关系代词that。如:I like the people and the places that I visited in Beijing last year.

  3) 关系代词除连接句子外,一般在从句中作主语、宾语或定语。

  答案:1. A 2.D

  (二) 由关系副词引导的定语从句

  经典考题

  1. The day will come soon China will become a modern, powerful, socialist country.

  A) when B) before C) since D) as

  2. The village I once worked has taken on a new look.

  A) which B) where C) when D) that

  考点分析

  1)能引导定语从句的关系副词有when(= at which )、where (= in which )和 why(= for which ),它们既可引导限定性定语从句,也可以用来引导非限定性定语从句,如:That is the reason why I did it.

  2) 关系副词引导的定语从句可以与其先行词分开,中间由谓语隔开,有的语法书称之为割裂修饰,其目的是为了求得句子的平衡。如:The time has come when ordinary people can use computers.

  3) 关系副词除连接定语从句外,一般在从句中作状语成分。

  答案:1. A2.B

  (三)带介词的定语从句

  经典考题

  1. We need a chairman .

  A) for whom everyone has confidence B) in whom everyone has confidence

  C) who everyone has confidence of D) whom everyone has confidence on

  考题分析

  引导定语从句的关系代词可以作介词的宾语,形成带介词的定语从句,这种结构有两种:

  1)从句由“介词+ which (表示事或物)或“介词+whom”(表示人)构成。

  如:The man to whom he is talking is our president.

  The school in which I studied is a famous university.

  2) 从句由“名词(或代词)+of + which(或whom)”构成。

  如:The citizens, most of whom were workers, welcomed the new law.

  Mt. Tai, the summit of which is hardly seen, is often covered with snow.

  答案:1. B

  解题要诀

  掌握常用介词的基本用法。

  掌握常用的动词、形容词与介词之间的固定搭配,这是解题的关键。

  (四)非限定性定语从句

  经典考题

  1. Helen was much kinder to her youngest child than she was to the others, ____ of course, made the others jealous.

  A) who B) that C) what D) which

  考点分析

  能引导非限定性定语从句的关系词有:who (whom, whose ),which , as, where, when。而which 和as有时可用来表示整个句子。

  答案:1. D

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