Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
Shoppers in the UK are spending less money on toilet paper to save money, research has shown.
Penny pinching UK consumers choose cheaper products from discounters such as Aldi and Lidi rather than luxury alternatives.
This has wiped 6% off the value of the soft tissue paper market in the UK. It has shrunk from £1.19 billion in 2011 to £1. 12billion in 2015, according to a new report from market research company Mintel. Furthermore, the future of the market looks far from rosy, with sales expected to fall future of the market looks far from rosy, with sales expected to fall further to £1.11billion in 2016.
In the last year alone, despite an increase in the UK population and a subsequent rise in the number of households, sales of toilet paper fell by 2%, with the average household reducing their toilet roll spending from £43 in 2014 to £41 in 2015.
Overall, almost three in five people say they try to limit their usage of paper-including facial tissue and kitchen roll –to save money. "Strength, softness and thickness remain the leading indicators ODM toilet paper quality, with just a small proportion of consumers preferring more luxurious alternatives, such as those with flower patterns or perfume," said Mintel analyst Jack Duckett. "These extra features are deemed unnecessary by the majority of shoppers, which probably reflects how these types of products are typically more expensive than regular toilet paper, even when on special offer."
While consunmers are spending less on toilet paper, they remain fussy-in theory at least-when it comes to paper quality. Top of Britons' toilet paper wish list is softness(57%)followed by strength(45%)and thickness(36%).
One in 10 buyers rank toilet rolls made from recycled paper among their top considerations, highlighting how overall the environment is much less of a consideration for shoppers than product quality. In a challenge for manufactures, 81% of paper product users said they would consider buying recycled toilet tissue if it were comparable in quality to standard paper.
46.【题干】The market sales of toilet paper have decreased because_____.
A.Britons have cut their spending on it
B.its prices have gone up over the year
C.its quality has seen marked improvement
D.Britons have developed the habit of saving
【答案解析】根据题干关键词market sales和toilet paper可以定位到首段Shoppers in the UK are spending less money on toilet paper to save money“英国的购物者减少卫生纸开支以省钱”和第三段首句This has wiped 6% off the value of the soft tissue paper market “这使得软棉纸市场的价值下降了6%”。has wiped off正好对应题干have increased。This指代的是第二段的内容Penny-pinching UK consumers choose cheaper products from discounters“吝啬的英国消费者从折扣商店选择更为便宜的商品”。综上所述，选A“卫生纸市场销售额下降是因为英国人缩减这方面的开支”。
47.【题干】What does the author think of the future of the tissue paper market in the UK?
A.It will expand in time.
B.It will remain gloomy.
C.It will experience ups and downs.
D.It will recover as population grows.
【答案解析】根据题干关键词tissue paper可以定位到第三段首句This has wiped 6% off the value of the soft tissue paper market in the UK.根据第三句the future of the market looks far from rosy“市场的未来看起来远远不够乐观”。因此，本题选B“作者认为绵纸市场的未来仍然是惨淡的”。
48.【题干】What does Jack Duckett say about toilet paper?
A.Special offers would promote its sales.
B.Consumers are loyal to certain brands.
C.Luxurious features add much to the price.
D.Consumers have a variety to choose from.
【答案解析】根据题干关键词Jack Duckett可以定位到第五段的引用部分。A“特价可以促进销售额”，原文引用处最后部分提到了special offer。which指代的是these extra features，也就是those with flower patterns or perfume。“这些额外的特点反映了这些商品通常比普通的卫生纸要贵，即使是在特价销售的时候。”所以A是利用原文细节信息设置的干扰选项，可以排除。B“消费者忠于某些品牌”和D“消费者有多样化的选择”，引用处均未提及，直接排除。C“奢侈品的特点大幅度提升了价位”，正好对应原文引用处which引导的非限定性定语从句的内容。
49.【题干】What do we learn about Britons concerning toilet paper?
A.They are particular about the quality of toilet paper.
B.They emphasize the strength of toilet paper the most.
C.They prefer cheap toilet paper to recycled toilet paper.
D.They reject using toilet paper with unnecessary features.
【答案解析】根据题干关键词Britons和toilet paper可以定位到第六段。根据原文they remain fussy... when it comes to paper quality可知，A选项正好是同义替换。如果不认识fussy“爱挑剔的”和be particular about“对...挑剔”，可以用排除法。依据自然段界定原则，48题定位到第五段，50题定位到最后一段，所以本题定位到第六段。CD均不在定位范围，可以直接排除。B“他们最强调的是卫生纸的强度”，由原文可知，最关注的应该是softness，所以B选项排除。采取这种方法也可以选出A。
50.【题干】What can we infer from the last paragraph?
A.More and more Britons buy recycled toilet paper to protect the environment.
B.Toilet paper manufacturers are facing a great challenge in promoting its sales.
C.Toilet paper manufacturers compete with one another to improve.
D.Environmental protection is not much of a concern when Britons buy toilet paper.
【答案解析】根据题干the last paragraph可知答案要在最后一段寻找。由原文“1/10的购买者把利用可循环纸制造的卫生卷纸列为首选，这突出表明，相比环境，购买者更加关注商品质量的现象是多么普遍。”因此，我们可以选出D“英国人购买卫生纸的时候，环境保护不是人们十分关心的。”
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
"One of the reason I find this topic very interesting is because my mom was a smoker when I was younger," say Lindson-Hawly, who studies tobacco and health at the University of Oxford.
By studying about 700 adult smoker, she found out that her mom quit the right way-by stopping abruptly and completely.
In her study, participants were randomly(随机地)assigned to two groups. One had to quit abruptly on a given day, going from about a pack a day to zero. The other cut down gradually over the course of two weeks. People in both groups used nicotine(尼古丁)patches before they quit, in addition to a second form of nicotine replacement, like gum or spray. They also had talk therapy with a nurse before and after quit day.
Six months out, more people who had quit abruptly had stuck with it-more than one-fifth of them, compared to about one-seventh in the other group. Although these numbers appear low, it is much higher than if people try without support.
And the quit rates were particularly convincing given that before the study started, most of the people had said they'd rather cut down gradually before quitting. "If you're training for a marathon, you wouldn't expect to turn up and just be able to run it. And I think people see that for smoking as well. They think, 'Well, if I gradually reduce, it's like practice.' "says Lindsons-Hawley. But that wasn't the case. Instead of giving people practice, the gradual reduction likely gave them cravings(瘾)and withdrawal symptoms before they even reached quit day, which could be why fewer people in that group actually made it to that point. "Regardless of your stated preference, if you're ready to quit, quitting abruptly is more effective,” says Dr. Gabrieia Ferreira, "When you can quote a specific number like a fifith of the patients were able to quit, that's compelling. It gives them the encouragement, I think, to really go for it,” Ferreira says.
People rarely manage to quit the first time they try. But at least, she says, they can maximize the odds of success.
51.【题干】What does Lindson-Hawley say about her mother?
A.She quit smoking with her daughter's help.
B.She succeeded in quitting smoking abruptly.
C.She was also a researcher of tobacco and health.
D.She studied the smoking pattems of adult smokers.
【参考解析】根据题干中专有名词Lindson-Hawley回文快速定位到文章中的第一段，根据第一段的信息可得出Lindson-Hawley的母亲曾经是一位吸烟者，第二段中她发现她的母亲有效地戒烟了，而且戒地很突然、很彻底。根据第二段中的信息点，可以得出本题的正确选项应为B She succeeded in quitting smoking abruptly. (她突然成功戒掉了烟瘾。)A、C、D选项在文中都没有提及，属于无中生有选项。
52.【题干】What kind of support did smokers receive to quit smoking in Lindson-Hawley's study?
A.They were given physical training.
B.They were looked after by physicians.
C.They were encouraged by pshchologists.
D.They were offered nicotine replacements.
【参考解析】本题问的是“在Lindson-Hawley的研究中，吸烟者在戒烟的过程中得到了哪些帮助?”，本题解题根据题文一致原则，可顺序定位至第三段第四、五句话，提到两组志愿者在戒烟前除了使用nicotine replacement(尼古丁替代疗法)之外，还使用nicotine patches尼古丁贴片(一种戒烟贴)。他们还在戒烟前后接受护士的talk therapy(谈话治疗)。结合定位信息及四个选项的意思，可以确定选项D They were offered nicotine replacements.为本题的正确答案。
53.【题干】How does Dr.Gabriela Ferreira view the result of Lindson-Hawley's experiment?
A.It is idealized.
B.It is unexpected.
C.It is encouraging.
D.It is misleading.
【参考解析】根据题干中专有名词Dr. Gabriela Ferreira回文定位该题至文中第五段后半部分Dr. Gabriela Ferreira的引语部分，其中她提到“It gives them the encouragement, I think, to really go for it.”根据这句话结合四个选项的意思，可以确定选项C It is encouraging.为原文的同义替换。
54.【题干】The idea of "a marathon" (Line 2, Para.5) illustrates the popular belief that quitting smoking _____.
A.is something few can accomplish
B.needs some practice first
C.requires a lot of patience
D.is a challenge at the beginning
【参考解析】根据题干定位至第五段第2行，根据上下文，可确定本题在文中的定位信息处为“And I think people see that for smoking as well. They think, ‘well, if I gradually reduce, it’s like practice’.”由此可以得知这些人的观点是逐步戒烟首先需要一些练习，该题四个选项中B needs some practice first.为文中信息的同义替换。A、C、D选项在文中都没有提及，属于无中生有选项。
55.【题干】What happens when people try to quit smoking gradually?
A.They find it even more difficult.
B.They are simply unable to make it.
C.They show fewer withdrawal symptoms
D.They feel much less pain in the process.
【参考解析】根据题干信息“quit smoking gradually”，定位至文中第五段“But that wasn’t the case. Instead of giving people practice, the gradual reduction likely gave them cravings and withdrawal symptoms before they even reached quit day.”根据原文的定位信息可得知逐步戒烟有可能会更能使人上瘾甚至出现戒断症状。结合四个选项可以确定A They find it even more difficult.为正确选项。