The United States is on the verge of losing its leading place in the world's technology. So says more than one study in recent years. One of the reasons for this decline is the parallel decline in the number of U. S. scientists and engineers.
Since 1976, employment of scientists and engineers is up 85 percent. This trend is expected to continue. However, the trend shows that the number of 22-year-olds - the near term source of future PH. D. s-is declining. Further adding to the problem is the increased competition for these candidates from other fields-law, medicine, business, etc. While the number of U. S. PH. D. s in science and engineering declines, the award of PH. D. s to foreign nationals is increasing rapidly.
Our inability to motivate students to pursue science and engineering careers at the graduate level is compounded because of the intense demand industry has for bright Bachelor's and Master's degree holders. Too often, promising PH. D. candidates, confronting the cost and financial sacrifice of pursuing their education, find the attraction of industry irresistible.
1. The U. S. will come to lose its leading place in technology probably because ________.
a. the number of PH. D. degree holders is declining
b. the number of scientists and engineers is decreasing
c. the number of 22-year-ilds is declining
d. scientists and engineers are not employed
2. The field of science and engineering is facing a competition from ________.
b. foreign nationals
c. such fields as law, medicine and business
3. Large-scale enterprises now need ________.
a. bright graduates and postgraduates
b. new inventions
c. advanced technology
4. Many promising postgraduates are unwilling to pursue a PH. D. degree because ________.
a. they are not encouraged to be engaged in science
b. industry does not require PH. D. holders
c. they have financial difficulties
d. they will spend much time and energy completing PH. D.
5. PH. D. candidates "find the attraction of industry irresistible" means that ________.
a. they find industry is attracting more and more college students
b. they don't think they can prevent themselves from working for industry
c. they cannot resist any attraction from all sides
d. they cannot work for industry any longer