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2017年12月大学英语四级翻译常见语法考点真题解析

   2017-08-23   【

2017年12月大学英语四级翻译常见语法考点真题解析

  一、题型介绍

  大学英语四级考试的最后一个阶段是翻译。翻译部分为 汉译英,共5个句子,一句一题,句长为15—30词。句中的一部分已用英文给出,要求考生根据全句意思将汉语部分译成英语,约3到8个单词。考试时间5分钟。翻译须符合英语的语法结构和表达习惯,要求用词准确。 该部分主要考核学生运用正确的词汇和语法结构并按英 语习惯表达思想的能力。因此,要求学生在平时学习和 四级复习中熟练掌握四级大纲规定的词汇、词组和语法 知识,熟悉各种句子结构,并且能够活学活用。

  二、评分原则及标准

  1. 整体内容和语言均正确,得1分。

  2. 结构正确,但整 体意思不确切、信息不全或用词不当,得0.5分。

  3. 整体意思正确但语言有错误,得0.5分。

  4. 整体意思完全 错误,即使结构正确也不得分。

  5. 大小写错误及标点符 号忽略不计。

  常见语法考点真题解析

  1、从句的翻译

  (1)主语从句 例. ___________(很多人没有意识到的) is providing the best education possible for their children.(2009.6) 答案:What many people don’t realize

  What的用法 1. what = just as,意为“恰像,犹如,好比”用作连词,引导比较状语从句。 ⑴ 惯用句式是:A is to B what C is to D. 意为“A对B而言正如C对D一样”。 E.g. Air is to us what water is to fish. (介词to 表示两者的关系) ⑵ 也有“A is for B what C is for D.”句式。E.g. Poultry is for the cook what canvas is for the paint. 厨师离不了家禽正如画家离不开画布一样。(介词for表示“供…使 用”) ⑶ what 引导的从句也可以放在句首,其句式是:What C to D,that A is to B.(= A is to B what C is to D.) 在这一结构中,喻体在前,主体在后,相当于“just as…, as… so…”结构,意思也是“A对B而言正如C对D一样”例如: What blood vessel is to a man's body,that railway is to transportation.(=Just as blood vessel is to a man's body ,so Railway is to transportation.)铁路对于运输,好比血管对于人体一样。

  2. what 与do with连用,意为“(怎样)处理﹑安排或对付等”。what常有较灵活的翻译,常用结构是:“what …do with sth./sb.?”或“what to do with sth./sb.” 例如:① What will you do with the letter?② The kids do not know what to do with themselves on rainy days.

  3. What从句可用作宾语补足语或状语。例如:① We will make the factory twice what it is today.(句中的twice what it is today是动词make的宾语the factory的补足语)Gravity is what makes you weigh what you weigh.地心吸引力使人称得现有的重量(句中的第一个what到句末为表语从句;句末的what you weigh 是 说明前面的动词weigh,系回答how much 的问题, 作状语)

  4.与what连用的常用句型和词组⑴ What if…?如果(假如)…将会怎么样?例如: What if it is true?如果这是真的又怎么样? What if a storm should come up?万一发生暴风雨怎么办?(2)come what will(may)是固定搭配必须倒装,意为“不管发生什么事” Come what will (may),I will always stand by you.

  2)宾语从句 Many Americans live on credit, and their quality of life _______(是用他们能够借到多少来衡量的) not how much they can earn.(2007.12) 答案: is measured by how much they can loan

  3)表语从句 In my sixties, one change I notice is that__________ (我比以前更容易累了). (2007.12) 答案:I am more likely to get tired than before

  4)定语从句 1).______________(与我成长的地方相比), this town is more prosperous and exciting.(2008.6)答案: Compared with the place where I grew up

  2)The prevention and treatment of AIDS is_____________ (我们可以合作的领域). (2007.6)答案:the field where(in which)we can cooperate

  5)状语从句 1) Leaving one’s job, ______________(不管是什么工作), is a difficult change, even for those who look forward to retiring.(2008.6) 答案:whatever it is(让步状语从句) 2)I am going to pursue this course, (无论我要作出什么样的牺牲).(2007.12) 答案:no matter what kind of sacrifice I have to make(让步状语从句) 2.虚拟语气

  历年真题中涉及到虚拟语气的考点可以归纳如下:

  (1)(should)+动词原形的情形; (2)if或but for等引导的条件句; (3)wish, if only, would rather, It is(high)time that…的用法。

  【真题】You would not have failed if______________(按照我的指令去做).(2009.12) 考点有两个:首先最重要的考点是if从句的虚拟语气考查;根据语法规定,如果主句中出现would +have的 形式,从句中应该采用had+过去分词的结构;第二 是固定搭配“按照…的指令”表达为follow my instructions 或者是follow my orders 注意多样化的表达,两者选其一就可以;注意很多学生出现遗漏主语you,造成不必要的失分。【答案】you had followed my instructions 或者you had followed my orders

  3.倒装结构 倒装分完全倒装与部分倒装两种类型,重点是部分倒装,即只有系动词、助动词和情态动词参与的倒装。常见的倒装结构可以分为四大类:

  (1)否定倒装。指否定副词或否定的副词性结构hardly, seldom, scarcely, never, little, nowhere, not once, under no circumstances, in no way, no sooner…than, sooner…than,not only…but also用于句首时所导致的倒装。 Seldom did I go to theater, but now it is different. 以前我很少去剧院,但是现在不同了。

  (2)虚拟倒装。指在if引导的虚拟条件句中,将if 省略,把should, had, were提至主语前,形成倒装。 Were I you, I’ll never promise to do that.如果我是你,绝对不会答应那么做的。

  (3)强调倒装。为突出强调某一成分而将它提至句首时,实行倒装,如: A. so 倒装句 So diligently does he work that he often forgets to eat and sleep. 他工作如此勤奋以至于经常废寝忘食。

  B.以某些表示肯定的副词开头作状语:only, often, then Then did I throw myself into the chair, exhausted. 然后我一屁股坐在椅子上,累死了。 Only by working hard can we achieve what we want. 我们只有通过努力工作才能获得想要的东西。

  (4)在“so+形容词…that分句”结构中,如将“so+形容词”置于句首以示强调时,其后的系动词be则要移到主语前面,形成主谓的完全倒装。So moved was she that she could not say a word. 她感动得说不出话来。

  练习题

  1. The professor required that_____________________ (我们交研究报告)by Wednesday.

  2. George called his boss from the airport but it _____________________ (接电话的却是他的助手).

  3. The mananger never laughed, neither_______________(她也从来没有发过脾气)。

  4. The significant museum________________(据说建成于)about a hundred years ago

  5. 5.If she had return an hour earlier, Mary_______________(就不会被大雨淋了)。

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