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翻译资格考试英语口译中级模拟题:传统节日

中华考试网   2018-12-19   【

翻译资格考试英语口译中级模拟题:传统节日

  英译汉

  American Thanksgivings

  According to tradition, the first American Thanksgiving was celebrated in 1621 by the English Pilgrims who had founded the Plymouth Colony, now in the state of Massachusetts. The Pilgrims marked the occasion by feasting with their Native American guests - members of the Wampanoag tribe - who brought gifts of food as a gesture of goodwill. Although this event was an important part of American colonial history, there is no evidence that any of the participants thought of the feast as a thanksgiving celebration. Two years later, during a period of drought, a day of fasting and prayer was changed to one of thanksgiving because rains came during the prayers. Gradually the custom prevailed among New Englanders to annually celebrate Thanksgiving after the harvest.

  Colonial governments and, later, state governments took up the Puritan custom of designating thanksgiving days to commemorate various public events. Gradually the tradition of holding annual thanksgiving holidays spread throughout New England and into other states. During the American Revolution (1775-1783) the Continental Congress proclaimed a national day of thanksgiving following the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777.U.S. President George Washington proclaimed another day of thanksgiving in 1789 in honor of the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. In 1817 New York State adopted Thanksgiving Day as an annual custom, and many other states soon did the same. Most of the state celebrations were held in November, but not always on the same day.

  In 1863, during the American Civil War (1861-1865), President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the last Thursday in November Thanksgiving Day in order to bolster the Union's morale. After the war, Congress established Thanksgiving as a national holiday, but widespread national observance caught on only gradually. Many Southerners saw the new holiday as an attempt to impose Northern customs on them. However, in the late 19th century Thanksgiving's emphasis on home and family appealed to many people throughout the United States. As a distinctly American holiday, Thanksgiving was also considered an introduction to American values for the millions of immigrants then entering the country.

  During the 20th century, as the population of the United States became increasingly urban, new Thanksgiving traditions emerged that catered to city dwellers. The day after Thanksgiving gradually became known as the first day of the Christmas shopping season. To attract customers, large retailers such as Macy's in New York City and Gimbel's in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, began to sponsor lavish parades. By 1934 the Macy's parade, featuring richly decorated floats and gigantic balloons, attracted more than one million spectators annually.

  参考译文

  美国的感恩节若按传统的祈祷仪式来界定,美国第一个感恩节应该出现在1621年。当时,英国朝圣者在现在美国的马萨诸塞州建立了第一个殖民地——普利茅斯殖民地。朝圣者为此摆设盛宴,大举庆贺。当地土著万帕诺亚格族人也带来象征友好的贺礼,共同欢庆。这个事件是美国殖民时期发生的历史性事件,但当时人们并没有意识到它还具有感恩性质。两年后,当地适逢旱燥天气。人们纷纷进行斋忌和祷告,祈求甘露。有一天当人们正在祷告时,天果真下起雨来。人们立刻举行庆祝活动,感谢上帝的恩赐。以后每年庄稼收割后,人们都会举行类似的感恩庆祝活动。渐渐地,感恩节庆典活动发展成为了新英格兰人的风俗。

  殖民地政府以及后来的州政府先后仿效清教徒的作法,借感恩节的名义来纪念各种重大事件。于是感恩节节假日的习俗逐渐在新英格兰得到推行,继而流传到其他各州,比如:在美国独立战争期间(1775-1883),大陆军国会曾宣布1777年萨拉托加战役胜利日为全国感恩节。1789年,美国第一任总统乔治·华盛顿将美国宪法的颁布日改为感恩节。而1817年,纽约州政府正式确立感恩节的年度节假日地位。此后,感恩节的合法地位在其他州也陆续得到承认。感恩节大多定在十一月举行,但各州的具体日期不尽相同。

  1863年,美国内战时期总统亚伯拉罕林肯宣布每年十一月的最后一个星期四为感恩节,以此鼓舞联盟军的士气。战争结束后,国会正式确立感恩节为全国统一节假日。尽管如此,该假日并没有在美国各地迅速推广开来。因为不少南方人认为此举有将北方风俗强加于人的嫌疑。但是发展到十九世纪末,人们渐渐被感恩节讲究家庭和亲情的特质所触动,感恩节终于在美国各地流行起来。另外,感恩节作为美国特有的节日,成为千万新移民了解美国价值观念的窗口。

  二十世纪以来,随着美国的城市化步伐的加快,城市居民的人数越来越多。感恩节的活动为了迎合潮流需要,也吸纳了不少新鲜的元素。例如:众所周知,从感恩节第二天开始就进入了圣诞购物黄金时段。于是一些著名的商家如纽约的Macy's公司,费城和宾夕法尼亚的吉姆贝尔,为了招搅顾客,纷纷主办大型的游行表演活动。1934年以前,以华丽炫目的彩车和巨型气球著称的Macy's的游行队伍,每年都能吸引到超过百万的观赏者。

  汉译英

  泼水节

  傣族的泼水节是在四月十三至十五号,这三天也是他们族的新年节日。傣族的节庆活动一共分三个层次,一天一个花样儿。第一天,大家清扫各家房屋,清理四周环境。第二天,人们倾巢而出,涌向各个大街小巷,用或锅或桶,盛满水,互相泼水嬉闹。傣族人认为这些纯水能为他们带来好运。最后一天,人们便划龙舟,放高升,不亦乐乎。

  关于泼水节的来历,民间流传着一个故事。很久很久以前,一个魔王觊觎景洪这块肥沃多产的土地,便霸占了该地,还强迫七位美丽的傣族姑娘做他的“夫人”。当地老百姓恨透了它,这些姑娘们也想尽办法要除掉它。

  一天,“七夫人”想了个主意。她用美酒灌醉他,甜言蜜语地奉承他,终于套出了他的死穴:原来只有用这魔头自己的一缕头发勒住他的脖子,才能将其置于死地。

  很快魔王就醉醺醺地唾去了。七姑娘便如法炮制,勒住魔头的脖子,魔王的头果然就骨溜溜滚到了地上。这个魔头本是个火魔,所以它头滚到哪儿,哪儿就燃起熊熊大火。七位“夫人”和众人一起奋力朝火上泼水,最终火熄灭了。以后几百年里,傣族人民每年都要欢庆斩除妖魔,庆祝“泼水节”。

  参考译文

  The Water-Splashing Festival

  The Water-Splashing Festival is on April 13-15, when the Dai people celebrate their New Year's Day. The celebrations change on each day. The first day is for cleaning up the houses and neighborhood. The next day everyone goes out to the streets and splashes water to each other with their pans, pails and buckets. The clean water is believed to be the best blessing. And on the third day people have fun by taking dragon boats and setting off firecrackers.

  As to where the Water-Splashing Festival comes from, there is a folk legend. A long time ago, a demon king impressed by the fertility of the Jinghong area in Yunnan, appropriated it and forced seven beautiful Dai maidens to be his wives. The people hated the demon, and the ladies tried to find out ways to get rid of him.

  One day, one of them hit upon an idea. She plied him with alcohol and showered him with flatter. At last she got to know a secret: the only thing that could kill him was to tie a piece of hair from his own head around his neck.

  Soon he was snoring in drunken slumber. The lady did as she had found out about, and the demon's head dropped to the floor, rolling. As he was a "fire demon", whatever the rolling head touched burst into flame. The seven wives and all the people splashed water over the fire and managed to extinguish it. Since then, the Dai people have been celebrating the "Water-Splashing Festival".

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