各地
资讯
当前位置:中华考试网 >> 翻译资格考试 >> 综合指导 >> 翻译资格考试汉语词汇翻译的多样性(二)

翻译资格考试汉语词汇翻译的多样性(二)

   2017-12-20   【

  例:欢天喜地:

  1)宁荣两处上下内外人等,莫不欢天喜地。(曹雪芹:《红楼梦》,第十六回)

  Then high and low alike in both mansions were filled with joy.

  2)那小厮欢天喜地,答应去了。(曹雪芹:《红楼梦》,第三十九回)

  The boy assented and made off in high spirits.

  3)我才已经和他母亲说了,BANNED 已经欢天喜地应了。(曹雪芹:《红楼梦 》,第七十二回)

  I've spoken to Chaixia's mother and she's consented gladly.

  4)两个小头目听了这话,欢天喜地,说道: 好了!众人在此少待一时。”(施耐庵: 水浒传》,第十七回)

  The junior officers were delighted.“Excellent,” they said. “Just wait here a little.”

  5)不论归迟归早,那妇人顿羹顿饭,欢天喜地服侍武松,武松倒过意不去。(施耐庵:《水浒传》,第二十四回)

  Whenever he returned home,whether early or late,Golden Lotus had food ready.She served him with obvious pleasure.It rather embarrassed him.

  6)得蒙差遣,欢天喜地,收拾枪刀。(施耐庵:《水浒传》,第六十三回)

  Happy with their mission,they gathered their weapons.

  7)石宝得胜,欢天喜地,回城中去了。(施耐庵:《水浒传》,第九十五回)

  The victorious Shi Bao returned to Hangzhou in jubilation.

  8)他们没有杀人的罪名,又偿了心愿,自然都欢天喜地的发出一种呜呜咽咽的笑声。(鲁迅 :《呐喊》中的《狂人日记》)

  Then they can enjoy their hearts’ desire without being blamed for murder.Naturally that delights them and sets them roaring with laughter.

  汉语成语“欢天喜地”形容非常高兴,其中“欢”和“喜”表示高兴,“天”和“地”表示“非常”的意思,并非真正表示“天地”。这是汉语文学作品中常用的成语之一。像这样的成语并不能根据其字面意思来翻译,“天”和“地”不 能译成,heaven 和 earth。这条成语可根据原文的实际含 义 来 翻 译 :to be highly elated。 我 们 也 可 用 对 等的 英 语 成语 来 翻 译:to go into raptures;to be in high glee。上面 8 个例句中的“欢天喜地”采用了 8 种不同的译法,充分显示了多样性译法的优越性:1)were filled with joy;2)in high spirits;3)gladly;4)were delighted;5)with obvious pleasure;6)happy;7)in jubilation;8)delights。在采用多样性翻译方法时,可参考英语的和汉语的同义词词典,也可参考英汉和汉英词典 。比如,在翻译汉语成语“大惊小怪”时,我们可以先参考英语同义词词典,查 fussy 这一基本词条,同时再参考汉英成语手册,查“大惊小怪”的各种英译。综合以上两类词典里的相应词语和词组,“大惊小怪”就会有大量的多样性译法:

  (1)be surprised or alarmed at sth quite normal

  (2)be surprised or alarmed at sth perfectly common

  (3)make a fuss about nothing

  (4)make unnecessary ado about trifles

  (5)make a fuss about(sth)

  (6)fuss about[over]sth[trifles]

  (7)much ado about nothing

  (8)much[great]cry and little wool

  (9)a flurried[hurried]ado about trifles

  (10)get alarmed for[about]nothing

  (11)get nothing for nothing

  (12)get all stirred up over nothing

  (13)make a terrible to-do about sth

  (14)a storm in a teacup

  (15)a tempest in a teapot

  (16)a teapot tempest

  (17)a tempest in a barrel

  (18)a tempest in a bucket

  (19)create about(it)

  (20)like a hen with one chick[chicken]

  (21)alarmism

  (22)fussy

  (23)get jittery for nothing

  (24)great alarm at a little bogey

  六、汉语句子翻译 的多样性

  例:你的眼睛长哪 儿去了?

  1)Haven’t you got eyes?

  2)Are you so blind?

  3)Are you such a blind man?

  4)You're really stone-blind !

  5)How blind you are !

  6)As blind as a bat !

  7)What a blind man !

  8)A sightless guy !

  9)Why are you so rash?

  10)How can you be so reckless?

  11)My goodness! Be careful!

  12)Would you please be more careful?

  这个例句实际上是汉语中很不礼貌的说法,指责对方没看清楚,不够小心。由于汉英两种语言有着不同的文化背景,各人对这个原文有不同的理解和体会,这个句子可能被用于不同的上下文,因此,这个句子自然会有多样性的译法。上面第一至第八个译文都是根据字面意思来进行翻译的。这样的翻译可以保留原文的形象和原文中粗野的口气,为了塑造说话人的人物形象,这个句子就必须直译。上面第九至第十二个译文是根据原文的含义来进行翻译的 ,这 4 种译文更符合地道的英语,在日常用语中,还是以这 4 种译法为好。

  又如“你有 笔吗?”可以译为:

  Have you got a pen?

  Have you got pens?

  Have you got any pens?

  Have you got some pens?

  Have you got the pen?

  Have you got the pens?

  准确的译文只能视具体语境而定。只要一发现有可能反对他的人,他就本能地要用他的魅力和风趣将这个人争取过来。

  (a)When he catches a glimpse of potential antagonist, his instinct is to win him

  over with charm and humor.

  (b)As soon as he finds any possible opponent, he is, by instinct, to have as

  an inclinat ion for winning him over with charm and humor.

  (c)The sight of a potential antagonist arouses (evokes) his innate impulse for

  winning him over with charm and humor.

  一想到要出国深造,他就激动不已。

  (a)The idea that he would go abroad for further study made him greatly excited.

  (b)He felt great ly excited at the thought of going abroad for further study.

  近年来,中、泰两国国民经济发展迅速,为两国的经济、贸易合作提供了良好的基础。

  (a)In recent years the national economies of China and Thailand have quickly developed, providing a good foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

  (b)Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of the national economies in China and Thailand, which has prepared for good economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

  (c)China and Thailand,with the rapid development of their national economies in recent years, have laid a good foundation for their economic and trade cooperation.

  (d)The rapid development of the national economies of China and Thailand in recent years has laid a sound foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

  总之,翻译中的多样性或多样性译法一方面可以使我们从多种译文中选择最佳的译文,另一方面可使原文中反复出现的词句拥有多种译法,从而使整个译文既忠实于原文,又行文流畅 ,生动活泼。另外,在翻译时,我们必须清楚这样一个事实:作为用一种语言传递另一种语言的思维内容的翻译,其表达手段可以是“多变的”,也就是说,一种思维内容可以用多种译语语言的形式表达。这就是同一种原文可以有多种表达形式的根据所在,译者往往选取不同的角度、不同的信息焦点作 为出发点 来对原文 同一信息进 行双语符 号转换。 因此,译 界有“译学无定 规”之说。在句子翻译中,若用不同的译语表达形式传递同一原文信息,往往要使用不同的主语和谓语,若使用了不同的主语和谓语,整个句子的其它成分在安排上就会发生变化。例如 :

  (6)一想到要出国深造,他就激动不已。

  When he thinks …., he As soon as … he

  (a)The idea that he would go abroad for further study made him great ly excited.

  (b)He felt greatly excited at the thought of going abroad for further study.

  When the students saw the plane, they were very happy.

  The sight of the plane made the student s happy.

  析:原文的同一信息在译文中以两种形式译出,两种译文中的主语大不一样 ,同时,主语的确定决定了谓语的选择,主、谓语确定之后又影响和决定了其它句子成分的安排。译文(a)是用“idea”作主语,按照一般的情况,idea 之后常用同位语从句,故“要出国 深造”这一部分译作同位语从句并置于 idea 之后,主要谓语动词用“make ”。主谓语搭配得当;译文(b)用 he 作主语,主要谓语动词用“feel”。并与“excited’’构成系表结构,原文中的其它成分如“一 想 到 要 出 国 深 造 ”在 译 文 中 则 用 介 词 短 语 “at the thought of going abroad forfurther study’’译出,并置于表语“excited”之后。原文的主干部分为“他就激动不已”,“一想到要出国深造”表示原因。译文(a)符合英语中以物作主语的表达习惯;译文(1))突出了主要信息,以 at 引出的介词短语表示原因。

  (7)近年来,中、泰两国国民经济发展迅速,为两国的经济、贸易合作提供了良好的基础。

  (a) In recent years the national economies of China and Thailand have quickly developed, providing a good foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

  (b)Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of the national economies in China and Thailand,which has prepared for good economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

  (c)China and Thailand, with the rapid development of their national economies in recent years, have laid a good foundation for their economic and trade cooperation.

  (d) The rapid development of the national economies of China and Thailand in recent years has laid a sound foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

  (彭开明:“翻译中的多种表达形式”,载《中国翻译》l995 年第 5 期) 析:四种译文分别以 economies,recent years,China and Thailand 和 development作主语,与它们一一对应的谓语则在选词、搭配、时态、单复数上有较大差异,但每种英译文的主语和谓语搭配得当,符合逻辑,这是翻译句子主干成分必须遵循的原则 。主、谓语确定之后,其它句子成分的安排要以与主语、谓语搭配协调、传意恰当为条件。译文(a)以 economies 作主语,谓语由 have quickly developed 充当,原文中的“为两国的 经 济 、 贸 易 合 作 提 供 了 良 好 的 基 础”在 译 文 中 以 现 在 分 词 短 语 providing a good foundation…two countries 译出,在译文中作伴随状语。译文(b)以 recent years 作主语,谓语以 have witnessed 来充当。英语中常常可以用表示时间、地点或物质概念的无生命的名词充当主语。这里主、谓语突出,且语言简洁明了 。谓语是及物动词,后需接宾语,the rapid development of the national economies in China and Thailand 作宾语顺理成章。“为两国的经济、贸易合作提供了良好的基础”的逻辑主语是 the rapid development …,故以非限定性定语从句译出,以 which 指代 the rapid development,逻辑关系清楚。译文(c)以 China and Thailand 作主语,“近年来,(中、泰)两 国国民经济发展迅速”以由with 引出的介词短语译出,置于谓语之前,作为下文中“为两国经济、贸易合作提供良好基础’’的 前 提 , 谓 语 和 宾 语 以 及 其 它 成 分 用 have laid a good foundation for their economic and trade cooperation 译出,主、谓、宾搭配得当,其它成分的位置正确。译文(d)突出说明了中、泰两国近年来经济的迅速发展,故以“the rapid development of the national economies of China and Thailand in recent years ”作主语,两国国民经济的 发展为 两国 的经济 、贸 易合作 提供了 良好 的基础 ,译 文顺理 成章 ,用“has laid a sound foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two, countries"译出。由此可见,句子其它成分的位置往往要依据主语和谓语来作相应的调整。

纠错评论责编:examwkk
相关推荐
热点推荐»