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翻译资格考试技巧之切分与合并及归化(三)

   2017-11-10   【

  归化

  由于文化上的差异,英译汉时有时直译原文就会使译入语读者感到费解,甚至误解。这时,就有必要借用汉语中意义相同或相近、且具有自己鲜明文化色彩的表达法对原文加以归化。归化翻译法常用于处理某些英语成语、典故、形象词语等一类文化色彩较浓的表达方式。恰倒好处地归化可以使译文地道简洁、生动活泼,便于译入语读者理解和接受。例如:

  as timid as a hare 胆小如鼠

  (在西方文化中,兔子是胆小的象征,而在我国,兔子却象征着机警敏捷。人们常说:“静若处子,动若脱兔。”鼠在我国才是胆小的象征,所以翻译时直接加以归化。)

  at a stone‘s throw一箭之遥

  wet like a drown rat 湿如落汤鸡

  as stupid as a goose 蠢得像猪

  as stubborn as a mule 犟得像牛

  seek a hare in a hen’s nest 缘木求鱼

  as dumb as an oyster 守口如瓶

  lead a dog‘s life 过着牛马一样的生活

  cry up wine and sell vinegar 挂羊头,卖狗肉

  put back the clock 开倒车

  talk horse 吹牛

  kill the goose that lays the golden eggs 杀鸡取卵

  drink like a fish 牛饮

  (1) Once the wife of a parson, always the wife of a parson.

  嫁鸡随鸡,嫁狗随狗。

  (2)One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy.

  一个和尚挑水吃,两个和尚抬水吃,三个和尚没水吃。

  (3) I was limp as a dish rag. My back felt as through it had been beaten with wires.

  我软得像一团棉花,脊背疼痛得好像被钢丝抽打过一样。

  (原文中limp as a dish rag,如直译为“像洗碟布一样柔软”,既不地道,又让人产生一种较恶心的感觉,不如用汉语中常说的“软得像一团棉花”加以归化。)

  (4) Everybody said how well the new Secretary was doing, but old Mr. Carr said shortly, “Yes. New brooms sweep clean.”

  人人都说新任秘书干得好,但卡尔老先生却简慢地说:“新官上任三把火。”

  (原文new brooms sweep clean的字面意思是“新扫把扫得干净”,比喻“新任职的人干得好”,和汉语中的“新官上任三把火”异曲同工,貌离神合。)

  (5) Among the blind the one-eyed man is King.

  山中无老虎,猴子称霸王。

  (6) Last night I heard him driving his pig to market.

  昨夜我听到他鼾声如雷。

  (7) Who would have thought of Mr.Mottram doing so well? And so many of his friends, too, that used to stay here? We were entertaining angels unawares.

  谁知道摩特兰先生干得那么出色?还有他那许多朋友,原来都住在这儿的,谁知道呀?我们真是有眼无珠。

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