Section 1: English-Chinese Translation (50 points)
Translate the following passage into Chinese.
Freed by warming, waters once locked beneath ice are gnawing at coastal
settlements around the Arctic Circle.
In Bykovsky, a village of 457 residents at the tip of a fin-shaped peninsula on
Russia’s northeast coast, the shoreline is collapsing, creeping closer and closer to
houses and tanks of heating oil, at a rate of 15 to 18 feet, or 5 to 6 meters, a year.
Eventually, homes will be lost as more ice melts each summer, and maybe all of
“It is practically all ice — permafrost — and it is thawing.” The 4 million
Russian people who live north of the Arctic Circle are feeling the effects of
warming in many ways. A changing climate presents new opportunities, but it also
threatens their environment, the stability of their homes, and, for those whose
traditions rely on the ice-bound wilderness, the preservation of their culture.
A push to develop the North, quickened by the melting of the Arctic seas,
carries its own rewards and dangers for people in the region. Discovery of vast
petroleum fields in the Barents and Kara Seas has raised fears of catastrophic
accidents as ships loaded with oil or liquefied gas churn through the fisheries off
Scandinavia, headed for the eager markets of Europe and North America. Land
that was untouched could be tainted by air and water pollution as generators,
smokestacks and large vehicles sprout to support the growing energy industry.
Coastal erosion is a problem in Alaska as well, forcing the United States to
prepare to relocate several Inuit coastal villages at a projected cost of US$100
million or more for each one.
Across the Arctic, indigenous tribes with cultural traditions shaped by
centuries of living in extremes of cold and ice are noticing changes in weather and
wildlife. They are trying to adapt, but it can be confounding.
In Finnmark, the northernmost province of Norway, the Arctic landscape
unfolds in late winter as an endless snowy plateau, silent but for the cries of the
reindeer and the occasional whine of a snowmobile herding them.
A changing Arctic is felt there, too, though in another way. “The reindeer are
becoming unhappy,” said Issat Eira, a 31-year-old reindeer herder.
Few countries rival Norway when it comes to protecting the environment and
preserving indigenous customs. The state has lavished its oil wealth on the region,
and as a result Sami culture has enjoyed something of a renaissance.
And yet no amount of government support can convince Eira that his
livelihood, intractably entwined with the reindeer, is not about to change. Like a
Texas cattleman he keeps the size of his herd secret. But he said warmer
temperatures in fall and spring are melting the top layers of snow, which then
refreeze as ice, making it harder for his reindeer to dig through to the lichen they eat.
“The people who are making the decisions, they are living in the south and
they are living in towns,” said Eira, sitting beside a birch fire inside his lavvu, a
home made of reindeer hides. “They don’t mark the change of weather. It is only
people who live in nature and get resources from nature who mark it.”
Section 2: Chinese-English Translation (50 points)
Translate the following passage into English.
国共有 8 大菜系，包括辛辣的川菜和清淡的粤菜。中国餐馆在世界各地很受欢迎。