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2019年翻译资格考试英语高级笔译材料:科技文

中华考试网   2019-03-15   【

2019年翻译资格考试英语高级笔译材料:科技文

  1.单心室辅助人工心脏应用于实验动物山羊,存活11天又23小时。在存活期间,动物心电图,中心静脉压,呼吸,体温等参数基本正常。石泵分流量可调,驱动装置连续工作11天,性能稳定可靠。动物死后的病理解剖表明,死亡的主要原因是肾动脉的广泛性血栓引起的急性肾功能衰竭。

  A univentricular assistant artificial heart was applied to the experiment goat, which survived for 11 days and 23 hours. During the period of survival, the parameters such as E.C.G., central venous blood pressure, respiration and temperature appeared to be essentially normal. The necessary amount of blood flow was well regulated by the pump. The driving system worked continuously, smoothly and reliably for 11 days. Postmortem patho-anatomy revealed that the chief cause of the animal’s death was acute renal failure as a result of widespread multiple embolism of renal arteries.

  2. 中国已经成功地发射了第一颗试验通信卫星。这颗卫星是由三级火箭推动的,一直运转正常。它标志着我国运载工具和电子技术方面进入了一个新阶段。

  The successful launching of China’s first experimental communication satellite, which was propelled by a three-stage rocket and has been in operation ever since, indicates that our nation has entered a new stage in the development of carrier rockets and electronics.

  3.石墨晶体结构遭到破坏时,总是碎化为微小尺寸的片状粉末。孤立的石墨烯片在其边缘存在大量的悬挂键,使得石墨烯片的能量较高,状态也不稳定。石墨烯片卷曲形成碳纳米管后,悬挂键减少,系统能量相应降低。

  When a graphite crystal is crushed, it breaks into micro-scaled laminar flakes. There are many dangling bonds on the edge of an isolated graphite micro-sheet which elevates its energy and makes it unstable. When a graphite micro-sheet curls into a nanotube, the number of dangling bonds decreases, and the system energy is reduced accordingly.

  4.舌诊是传统中医诊病的重要方法,然而传统舌诊中存在一个很大的问题是具有主观性,难于进行定量化描述。随着计算机技术的发展,图像处理和模式识别技术正在用于舌诊的辅助诊断。

  Tongue diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine. However, one important problem in tongue diagnosis is that its practice is subjective, qualitative and difficult in automated diagnosis. Recently it is a trend to utilize the image processing and pattern recognition technology in aid of the quantitative analysis of tongue image.

  8.吸拔时先用右手食、中指夹持罐腹,用拇指按压罐底,使气罐变成凹底形状,随后把气罐平放于应吸部位上,再用左手拇、食两指固定罐口,右手拇、食两指移到罐腹进行挤捏,使罐底凸起,一旦罐底变成凹形就可牢固吸着。

  First, clamp the belly part between you right-hand fore and middle fingers, press the thumb against the bottom so that the air jar becomes concave; then lay the jar mouth on the part of the body to be cupped. Second, fix the jar mouth with the left-hand thumb and forefinger, then move the right-hand thumb and forefinger to squeeze the belly part so that the bottom of the jar becomes convex. Once the belly part is concave the jar is cupped tightly.

  21.摘要:采用红外扫描仪、扫描电镜以及电子束诱生电流仪研究了不同温度和不同冷却速度下原生直拉单晶硅的铜沉淀规律。红外扫描仪观察发现:只有在热处理温度高于800°C的样品中才能观察到铜沉淀团,表明在原生单晶硅中铜沉淀温度为800°C。同时,红外扫描仪和电子束诱生电流谱仪照片显示,快冷(30K/s)时,形成高密度的小铜沉淀团;而慢冷(0.3K/s)导致低密度、巨大的星形铜沉淀团的形成。实验还发现慢冷所形成的星形铜沉淀团对少数载流子具有更强的复合强调。最后,讨论了原生直拉单晶硅中铜沉淀规律的机理。

  关键词:单晶硅 铜 沉淀

  Abstract: Scanning infrared microscopy (SIRM), scanning election microscopy (SEM), and electron beam induced current (EBIC) are used to investigate the precipitation behavior of copper in as-grown Czochralski silicon. Copper-precipitate colonies could be observed through SIRM only in the specimens that experienced annealing at temperatures greater than 800°C. These results indicate that the copper precipitation temperature in the as-grown Czochralski silicon is approximately 800°C. In addition, SIRM and EBIC images show that tiny copper-precipitate colonies with high density formed in the specimens under air-cooling (30K/s), while large star-like colonies with how density generated in the specimens under slow cooling (0.3K/s). Furthermore, the recombination ability of the tiny copper-precipitate colonies. Finally, the mechanism of copper precipitation in as-grown Czochralski silicon is discussed.

  Key words: silicon copper precipitation

  22.摘要:本文借助于没有PS条件的翻山引理,并利用Sobolev嵌入的最佳达到函数,克服了由于Sobolev嵌入失紧性而带来的系列困难,证明了含临界增长的两类双调和方程边值问题非平凡解的存在性。

  关键词:PS条件 翻山引理 最佳嵌入常数 双调和方程

  Abstract: With the help of the Mountain-Pass Theorem lacking Palais-Smale compactness condition ((PS)c condition) and by adoption of the best attained function of Sobolev embedding, the paper proves the existence of nontrivial solutions of two classes of critical biharmonic equations on boundary conditions by overcoming serial difficulties caused by loss of compactness due to Sobolev embedding.

  Key words: (PS)c condition Mountain-Pass Theorem Best Embedding Constance Biharmonic Equations

  23.摘要:车身设计在汽车设计中,占有极其重要的地位。本文根据现代设计方法的要求,在与传统设计相比较的基础上,对客车车身造型设计、零部件有限元分析、内饰设计、色彩设计及其一体化设计界方法进行了研究,增加了各设计阶段之间的相关性,以达到协同设计的目的。

  关键词:客车车身设计 有限元分析 内饰设计 色彩设计

  Abstract: The body design is of great important in bus design. On the basis of comparing traditional and modern design methods, the authors of this paper illustrate the research they have made on the integrated design method of body design which satisfies the requirements of the modern design method. This research helps to increase the relativity of different design phases for the realization of good cooperative design.

  Key words: modeling of bus body finite element analysis interior ornament color design

  24.摘要:将定性和模糊性评价合理地转化为定量评价,进而选择最优设计解,是产品创新设计过程中重要的一步。论文运用模糊综合评判与比较的方法,以Microsoft Visual Basic 5.0为软件平台,建立了一个计算机辅助的设计方案择优系统。该系统提供了对产品设计方案进行定量评价和择优,以及对择优结果存档、调用和打印等功能。

  关键词:产品创新设计 方案择优 模糊综合评判

  Abstract: It is a very important procedure of product design to transform rationally fuzzy and qualitative evaluation into quantitative evaluation for optimum solution. This paper introduces a computer-aided selection system for optimum solution to product design. The system is established on the platform of Microsoft Visual Basic 5.0 with the method of fuzzy comprehensive judgment and comparison. It has the functions of quantitative evaluation, selection of the optimum design solution, filling, consulting and printing of the optimized results.

  Key words: innovative product design selection of optimum solution fuzzy comprehensive judgment

  25.采用真空顺序蒸发铜铟金属预置层后真空(硒化法),以及真空三元叠层蒸发后氮气气氛退火的方法(叠层法)分别制备太阳电池吸收层材料CuInSe2薄膜。通过X谁信安衍射、扫描电子显微镜、能量色散X射线分析技术等分析手段对薄膜进行了表征。结果表明:两种方法制备的薄膜形貌都比较致密均匀,晶粒直径分别约1.5μm和1μm。成分分析表明所制薄膜均为富铜CIS.硒化法制备的CIS薄膜具有单一的黄铜矿相结构;而叠层法制备的薄膜含有少量杂相,如β-2In2 Se2等。因此硒化法制备的薄膜更适用于座位太阳能吸收层材料。

  Abstract: The CuInSe 2(CIS) films were fabricated by selenization of evaporated metallic precursors and vacuum evaporation of stacked elemental layers(SEL) followed by a thermal annealing step. The morphology, microstructure and composition of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX). The results show that these two thin films are both compact and uniform. The grain sizes of the two kinds of films are 1.5 μm and 1.0 μm, respectively.All the films made by the two methods are Cu-rich and show p-type conduction. However, the CIS thin films fabricated by the former method consist of a single phase of chalcopyrite structure, while those films fabricated by the later method contain impurity phases such as β-In 2Se 3 besides CIS phase. Thus the former method is better for fabricating the CIS absorber in solar cells.

  26.混合选择法,就是根据育种的目的,每年按照一定的经济目的,从大田或留种地中,选出一定的优良植株,经过复查,去掉不良植株,把全部优良植株混合脱粒、混合储藏和播种,并且和原品种以及标准品种进行比较。这样经过连续几年的选择,就可以从混杂群中选出性状一致的优良品种。

  Mix Selection refers to selecting and re-selecting fine plants in the fields or seed plots each year according to a definite economic purpose. Those undesirable are eliminated, the remaining fine plants are threshed together, stored together and their seeds are sowed together. Comparisons are made between the mixed fine plants and the standard ones. With such a treatment in several successive years, fine types of plants in uniform properties and shape can be selected from the mixed groups.

  27.科学家们已经研制出了一种减肥药,它能有效地抑制食欲,导致体重显著下降而无任何明显的不良反应。该药能干扰脑中的食欲控制系统,并阻止脂肪组织的积聚。服药的试验用小鼠减少的体重高达其体重的三分之一。在给小鼠服用被叫作C75的减肥药之后20分钟内,这些小鼠失去了进食的兴趣,仅满足于其正常进食量的10%生存。更重要的是,该药似乎能阻止代谢率的严重下降。代谢率的下降通常会引起疲劳乃至昏睡,这是以处于饥饿状态的饮食来维持生命时所出现的典型现象。实验结果显示,服用该药的小鼠于喂给相同数量食物的小鼠相比,其体重下降了45%以上,但后者则变得比较懒怠,即以减少活动量的方法来为“脂肪酸合酶”的一种酶结合在一起。这种酶参与了把过量的食物摄取转化成脂肪储存起来的过程。对这种酶的抑制导致在肝脏中产生一种化学物质,该物质是预示脂肪沉积的先兆,被认为会对脑产生一种的作用,从而抑制食欲。在正常情况下,当动物节制饮食时,一种被称为神经肽Y的激素就在脑的食欲控制中心急剧增加,从而刺激食欲。然而,当给动物服用了C75时,该激素就下降,使其失去对食物的兴趣。

  Scientists have developed a slimming drug that successfully suppresses appetite and results in a dramatic loss of weight without any apparent ill effects. The drug interferes with appetite control and prevents the build-up of fatty tissue. Laboratory mice given the drug lost up to a third of their total body weight. Within 20 minutes of being given the drug, called C75, the mice lost interest in eating and survived apparently content on just 10 percent of the food they would normally eat. More importantly, the drug appears to prevent a serious decline in metabolic rate—causing tiredness and lethargy—which is typically associated with living on a starvation diet. As a result, mice taking the drug lost 45 percent more weight than mice fed the same amount of food, which compensate for the lack of food by becoming more sluggish. The scientists believe that C75, which they produced synthetically in the laboratory, binds to an enzyme called fatty acid synthase, which is involved in storing excess food in take as fat. Inhibiting the enzyme caused a build-up of a chemical in the liver which acts as a precursor to fat deposition. This precursor is thought to have an indirect effect on the brain, causing appetite suppression. Normally, when animals fast, a hormone called neuropeptide Y increases sharply in the appetite-control centers of the brain, stimulating the desire for food. However, when animals are given C75, levels of this hormone fall, leading to a loss of interest in food.

  28.振动吸收板,用于放置天平和其他高敏度的仪器,可消除附近的马达、搅拌混合器、重型车辆的出入等环境振动因素,使感度更精确,误差更少。黑白相间的高级水磨石子抗刮蚀板,四角处有特殊除振设计,总高度76mm,可吸收振动至9Hz,载重量可达16kg。

  This Vibration Damping Mount can keep sensitive analytical balances and other instruments from disturbing vibrations so that they work more accurately. It reduces to 9Hz the vibrations caused by nearby pumps, blenders, stirrers, and heavy-weight automobiles. It is made of black and white terrazzo with a polished surface that resists scratches and chemicals and supported by four Vibro-Absorbers with neoprene feet. With an overall height of 76mm, it can carry a weight up to 16kg.

  29.摘要:本文介绍了高炉铜冷却壁(blast furnace wall with copper stave)的一种监控方法,实现了对铜冷却壁炉墙热面温度和渣皮(slag)厚度进行监控和高炉炉墙内型的可视化。从实践的角度证明了铜冷却壁炉墙监控的必要性,给出了本监控方法的实现思路,在对铜冷却壁前段渣皮进行监控过程中发现:通过监控可以在操作过程中防止铜冷却壁裸露、结瘤(wall accreditons)等异常发生;通过调整高炉操作维持适当厚度的渣皮,能实现高炉长寿和高效的结合,最优化高炉操作和最大化高炉生产。

  Abstract: A monitoring method for blast furnace copper stave is introduced in this paper. Monitoring for heating surface temperature of copper stave wall and slag thickness was realized and internal profile of blast furnace wall was visible. Practice proves that monitoring of blast furnace wall with copper stave is necessary. Realization idea of the monitoring method is presented. The monitoring results show that monitoring in operation process can prevent abnormalities happened such as copper stave naked status, wall accretions and so on. Through regulation of blast furnace operation and keeping a proper thickness of slag, long campaign and high productivity as well as optimizing operation and maximum production of blast furnace can be realized.

  30.摘要:药物性不良反应(ADEs)是医疗保健中的一个主要问题。本文分析了用以预防不良反应的计算机信息系统。引言部份定义了相关概念和术语,然后分析了药物性不良反应的临床表现、、影响和费用以及药疗类型和原因。文章讨论了针对药品取得和使用不同阶段的信息系统。不同研究表明计算机医生开药

  系统对于预防不良反应十分重要。计算机辅助决策系统,结合针对药品取得和使用各阶段的系统,构成了最有效的预防系统。和其他方法对比,计算机信息系统的成本效益最佳和最有前途的不良反应预防工具。文章也讨论了其他问题和可能的改进

  Abstract: The occurrence of adverse drug events is recognized as an important health care issue. This paper provides a review of the computer information systems that have been developed and used for the prevention of ADEs. Following an introductory section that defines concepts and terms, the clinical manifestations, influences, and costs of ADEs are reviewed, along with the medication classes, types, and causes of ADEs. Information systems that target different stages of the drug ordering and delivery process are discussed. Different studies show that computerized physician order entry systems are essential in the prevention of ADEs. Computer-assisted decision support programs that are integrated with systems that cover each stage of the drug ordering and delivery process provide the most powerful prevention tools. Through comparison with other methods, computer-based information systems are shown to be the most cost-effective and promising strategy for preventing ADEs. Further challenges and possible improvements are also discussed.

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