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2017年初级英语笔译考试讲义:汉语四字结构的应用与译词为句

   2017-10-07   【

2017年初级英语笔译考试讲义:汉语四字结构的应用与译词为句

  一、汉语四字结构的应用

  大量使用四字结构是汉语一个突出的特点,因为四字结构表意精当、读来琅琅上口,也充分体现了汉语讲求平衡的特征。一般而言,英语中的某些形容词、名词,以及一些特殊的结构都可以处理为汉语的四字结构,使译文流畅地道,例如:

  1) Most Americans have great vigor and enthusiasm,美国人大多数精力充沛,热情奔放。

  2) His speech was Irish throughout, versatile, witty, and occasionally pointed.

  他的演说自始至终带有爱尔兰人的风格:洋洋洒洒,妙趣横生,有时则犀利深刻。

  3) The guest was pleased by the distinction but not overwhelmed.

  来宾对这种殊荣感到高兴,但并没有受宠若惊。

  4) He was struck by her powerful profile, her rich black hair falling freely onto her shoulders, the intensity of her dark eyes.

  他一下子为她的出众长相所倾倒:她乌发垂肩,飘逸潇洒,一双黑眸炯炯有神。

  5) All the ones we have seen here have four-star abilities with five-star ambitions.

  我们在此看到的所有人都是些眼高手低之辈。

  然而,译者在进行汉译时也不能刻意追求四字结构的使用,影响译文质量。

  反之,在汉译英中,译者也无须拘泥于原文,用英文中的形容词、名词或一些特殊结构处理即可,例如:

  6) 我们要把本市建设成为一座经济发达、文化繁荣、城区繁华、环境优美的现代化城市。

  We shall develop our city into a modem city that is advanced in economy, prosperous in culture, with flourishing urban area and beautiful environment.

  7) 东余山则以茂林修竹、奇峰怪石、悬崖峭壁、竹径通幽、古迹依稀,而令人起怀古之情。

  The eastern section of the Sheshan Mountain, however, is noted for its dense forests and elegant bamboos, fantastic peaks ,grotesque rocks, steep cliffs, quiet bamboo paths, and historic sites that remind tourists of the ancient time.

  8) 在那里,古树摇曳春秋,山花自谢自开,植被茸茸生烟。

  Aged trees wave the seasons by, amid carpets of wild flowers and thick green vegetation.

  9) 但我的事现在搞得满城风雨,人人皆知了。

  But there had been too much publicity about my case.

  10) 外交人员要立场坚定、目光远大、头脑敏捷、业务熟练、才华出众、风格高尚。

  A diplomat should be firm in stand, broad in vision, swift in wit, qualified in profession, outstanding in talent, and noble in character.

  二、译词为句

  由于汉英两种语言的差别,英语中有些形容词和副词与其所修饰的成分在译为汉语时显得搭配不当或难以搭配。这种时候,译者往往采用译词为句的方法,把该形容词或副词单独提出,译为汉语中的一个句子,例如:

  1) They tried vainly to blame us for the breakdown in the truce talk.

  他们企图把和谈破裂归罪于我们,但没有成功。

  2) I don't like having two jobs, but it's a necessary evil if we want to buy a car,我并不喜欢干两份工作,但如果我们想买一辆车,这是不得已的办法。

  3) She was pardonably proud of her wonderful cooking.

  她以自己高超的厨艺为荣,这情有可原。

  4) American prisoners are permitted to write censored letters.

  允许美国俘虏写信,但信要经过检查。

  5) He crashed down on a protesting chair.

  他猛地坐到椅子上,压得椅子吱吱作响。

 

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