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2017年初级英语笔译考试讲义:替代与重复

   2017-10-07   【

2017年初级英语笔译考试讲义:替代与重复

  一、替代与重复

  上一课提到,在英语中省略的成份,在汉语中往往要用重复的方法补全。英语与汉语的另一个重要差异是:英语中除了修辞需要外,很少重复同一个词或结构,而在汉语中重复现象比比皆是。英语中往往使用代词、同义词、近义词以及代替句型等来替代前文出现过的词语和结构,而汉语则倾向于使用相同的词语或结构呼应前文出现过的词语或结构。句子层面如此,段落层面同样如此。因此,在英汉互译时必须特别注意这一点。

  英语中的替代结构主要有代词,替代代词so,替代动词do等。英语往往用代词来替代上文刚出现过的名词,而汉语则更习惯于重复名词。英语中的代动词及代动词词组,如do,do so,do it等,往往用重复法译成汉语的动词。另外,英语中的替代句型,如if so,so+do+主语等,也通常用重复法译成汉语。例如:

  1) He hated failure; he had conquered it all his life, risen above it, despised it in others.

  他讨厌失败,他一生中曾战胜失败,超越失败,并且藐视别人的失败。

  2) Happy families also had their own troubles.

  幸福的家庭也有幸福家庭的苦恼。

  3) Despite the economic importance of livestock operations to Canada, relatively few studies

  have examined how they could be impacted by climate change.

  家畜业对加拿大经济举足轻重,但是,有关气候变化对家畜业影响的研究却相对不足。

  4) We all know that dogs and cats do not have histories, while human beings do.

  众所周知,狗和猫没有历史,而人类则有。

  5) “By the way,” he added, “have you any free time this afternoon? If so, why don't you

  have tea in the lighthouse?”

  “顺便问一下,”他接着说道,“你今天下午有空吗?如果有空,为什么不去灯塔里喝杯茶呢?”

  6) For example, large numbers of chicken deaths are commonly reported in the United States

  during heat waves. Heat stress also adversely affects milk production, meat quality and

  dairy cow reproduction.

  译文:例如,热浪来袭时,美国经常有大批小鸡死亡的报道。热浪对牛奶生产、肉制品质量以及奶牛繁殖也很不利。

  说孵:英语出现了“heat wave”和“heat stress”两种表达方法,但译成汉语则都使用“热浪”一词。

  反之,汉语的句子各语篇中重复的词语和结构译成英语时则往往需要用代词等其他词语或结构来替代。例如:

  7) 独自享乐是一种愉快,独自忧伤也是一种愉快。

  Happiness enjoyed alone is a pleasure, so is sorrow tasted privately.

  8) 钢琴呢?钢琴怎么不见了?抓小偷!有人把钢琴给偷走了。三弦兄,是不是有人把钢琴给偷走了?

  Where is the piano? How come it’J gone? Stop thief! The piano has been stolen.

  Sanxian, has it been stolen?

  9) 何首乌藤和木莲藤缠络着,木莲有莲房一般的果实,何首乌有臃肿的根。

  Milkwort interwove with climbing fig, which had fruit shaped like the calyx of a lotus,while the milkwort had swollen tubers.

  10) 五四运动是反帝国主义的运动,又是反封建主义的运动。五四运动的杰出的历史意义,在于它带着为辛亥革命还不曾有的姿态,这就是彻底地不妥协地反帝国主义和彻底地不妥协地反封建主义。五四运动之所以有这种性质,是在当时中国的资本主义经济已有进一步的发展……,因而发生了中国民族解放的希望。五四运动是在当时世界革命号召之下,是在俄国革命号召之下,是在列宁号召之下发生的。五四运动是当时无产阶级革命的一部分。

  译文:The May 4th Movement was an anti-imperialist as we// as an anti-feudal movement. Its outstanding historical significance is to be seen in a feature which was absent from the Revolution of 1911, namely, its thorough and uncompromising opposition to imperialism as we// as to feudalism. The May 4th Movement possessed this quality because capitalism had developed a step further in China... and because new hopes had risen for the liberation of the Chinese nation. The May 4th Movement came into being at the call of the world revolution, of the Russian Revolution and of Lenin. It was part of the world proletarian revolution of the time.

  说明:汉语原文中“五四运动”重复了五遍,而英语译文中只用了三次,其余两次分别用Its和it所替代;第一句中重复的“运动”和第二句中重复的“彻底地不妥协地”两个词语均为as well as所替代;而第四句的后两个“号召之下”则干脆省略了。本例较典型地反映了汉英语篇的这个差异。

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