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ACCA考试《F6税务》辅导(12)

中华考试网  [ 2017年8月14日 ] 【

  ACCAF8考试:Audit risk

  什么是审计风险

  According to the IAASB Glossary of Terms (1), audit risk is defined as follows:

  ‘The risk that the auditor expresses an inappropriate audit opinion when the financial statements are materially misstated. Audit risk is a function of material misstatement and detection risk.’

  为什么审计风险对于审计师是重要的?

  Audit risk is fundamental to the audit process because auditors cannot and do not attempt to check all transactions. Students should refer to any published accounts of large companies and think about the vast number of transactions in a statement of comprehensive income and a statement of financial position. It would be impossible to check all of these transactions, and no one would be prepared to pay for the auditors to do so, hence the importance of the riskbased approach toward auditing. Traditionally, auditors have used a risk-based approach in order to minimise the chance of giving an inappropriate audit opinion, and audits conducted in accordance with ISAs must follow the riskbased approach, which should also help to ensure that audit work is carried out efficiently, using the most effective tests based on the audit risk assessment. Auditors should direct audit work to the key risks (sometimes also described as significant risks), where it is more likely that errors in transactions and balances will lead to a material misstatement in the financial statements. It would be inefficient to address insignificant risks in a high level of detail, and whether a risk is classified as a key risk or not is a matter of judgment for the auditor.

  相关准则- ISAS

  There are many references throughout the ISAs to audit risk, but perhaps the two most important audit risk-related ISAs are as follows:

  ISA 200, Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with ISAs

  ISA 200 sets out the overall objectives of the auditor, and the standard explains the nature and scope of an audit designed to enable an auditor to meet those objectives. References to audit risk are frequently made by ISA 200, and the standard also requires that the auditor shall plan and perform an audit with professional scepticism, recognising that circumstances might exist that may cause the financial statements to be materially misstated. Professional scepticism is defined as an attitude that includes a questioning mind and a critical assessment of evidence.

  ISA 315, Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement Through Understanding the Entity and Its Environment

  ISA 315 deals with the auditor’s responsibility to identify and assess the risks of material misstatement in the financial statements through an understanding of the entity and its environment, including the entity’s internal controls and risk assessment process. The first version of ISA 315 was originally published in 2003 after a joint audit risk project had been carried out between the IAASB, and the United States Auditing Standards Board. Changes in the audit risk standards have arguably been the single biggest change in auditing standards in recent years, so the significance of ISA 315, and the topic of audit risk, should not be underestimated by auditing students.

  The requirements of ISA 315 are summarised in the following table.

  (1). The auditor shall perform risk assessment procedures in order to provide a basis for the identification and assessment of the risks of material misstatement.

  (2). The auditor is required to obtain an understanding of the entity and its environment, including the entity’s internal control systems.

  (3). The auditor shall identify and assess the risks of material misstatement, and determine whether any of the risks identified are, in the auditor’s judgement, significant risks. This is in order to provide a basis for designing and performing further audit procedures.

  (4). ISA 330 then deals with the required responses to assessed risks.

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